Orbital Launch Manifest 1965 (37.2 KiB)

Gemini 2 Reentry

Gemini 2 Reentry

January 19: Successful launch of Gemini Titan II from LC-19 on
an unmanned suborbital flight to test the reentry system of the
Gemini spacecraft. The spacecraft’s fuel cells were of an earlier
prototypical design and failed pre-launch.

Gemini 2.mp4
Gemini 2.flv

January 22: Launch of Tiros 9 (weather satellite).

February 3: Launch of Orbiting Solar Observatory -2.

February 3: Launch of Ranger 8, which impacts the Moon at Mare
Tranquillitatis on February 20 after returning 7137 photos of the Lunar surface.

SA-9 Launch

SA-9 Launch



February 16: Launch of Saturn I SA-9 from LC 37B with payload
A-103 (Pegasus I) and a boiler plate Apollo capsule. Pegasus was
a satellite designed to collect micrometeoroid data.
March 2: Unsuccessful launch of Atlas Centaur 5 from LC-36A with
a surveyor mass payload (SD-1). Exploded on launch pad resulting
in the activation of LC-36B for future launches.

Atlas Centaur 5 Rocket Explosion 1965 (15.7 MiB)

March 12: Unsuccessful launch of a Soviet lunar soft lander (Cosmos 60)
which failed to leave Earth orbit. Also called E-6 #9.

March 18: Voskhod 2 launches with Pavel Belyayev and Alexei Leonov
into orbit for a 16 orbit flight. Leonov performs the first EVA which
lasted 12 minutes after the first orbit. Leonov had difficulty returning
back into the spacecraft due to spacesuit stiffness in vacuum. He suffered
from heat exhaustion due to the extreme exertion that was required.
He vented air from his spacesuit to climb back into the capsule (the spacesuit
had two pressure settings – 5.89 psi and 3.97 psi). An inflatable exterior
airlock was used as the Voskhod avionics required ambient cabin air for cooling.
There was difficulty in closing the airlock hatch. Reentry was not successful
on the first try and a second attempt one orbit later was successful using
manual control. The reentry was complicated by the orbital module not
separating from the descent module (inducing spinning of the spacecraft
until the connecting bolts burned through), malfunction of the automatic
landing system, and an offset center of gravity which resulted in a reentry
of over 10 g and an overshoot of over 2000 km. The spacecraft landed in
the Ural Mountains of Siberia in deep snow and was not found until the
next day by recovery forces on skis. Overnight temperatures were -30
degrees centigrade and the cosmonauts were threatened by wolves.
The Voskhod spacecraft was considered too dangerous and was never flown again.

Voskhod 2.flv
Voskhod 2.mp4

Alexi Leonov EVA (1.3 MiB)

Alexi Leonov French (16.9 MiB)

Alexi Leonov Interview (6.0 MiB)

Ranger 9 Alphonsus crater floor

Ranger 9 Alphonsus crater floor

March 21: Launch of Ranger 9, which impacts the Moon on March 24
after returning 5814 photos of the Alphonsus Crater. Final conclusion
of the Ranger Program was that cratering occurred on all of the photographs
down to the surface and that finding a level area for the Apollo lunar
landing would be difficult.

Ranger 9 Spacecraft Impact On Moon (460.6 KiB)

NASA SP 4210 Ranger Program (20.9 MiB)

March 23: Gus Grissom and John Young pilot the first two-man
Gemini spacecraft, Gemini Titan III, named “Molly Brown” in
recognition of Grissom’s Mercury splashdown and the loss of his
Liberty Bell 7 capsule. Their 3-orbit flight was successful and was
the first time that a spacecraft was maneuvered in-flight. Young
smuggled a sandwich on the mission, showing that eating normal
food was not difficult. The reentry was 84 km short of the splashdown
target due to the Gemini capsule not generating as much lift as
predicted. Grissom smashed his faceplate on the control panel
when the spacecraft shifted from vertical to horizontal during
the parachute phase.

Gemini 3 (NASA) (1.5 MiB)

Launch Of Gemini 3 (NBC) (19.8 MiB)

Summary of the Gemini Program:
NASA SP 4203 Project Gemini.pdf

Gemini Medical (2.4 KiB)

NASA Highlights 1965.flv
Project Gemini – Part 1.mp4
Project Gemini  – Part 2.mp4

EVA Chronology (3.4 MiB)

Launch SNAP 10A

Launch SNAP 10A



April 3: Launch of the first nuclear powered satellite (SNAP) from
Vandenburg AFB on an Atlas Agena D rocket in a retrograde polar
orbit of 700mi X 700 mi. This was the only US nuclear reactor
launched into space. It generated 500 watts of power for 43 days
until the failure of a voltage regulator. It was hit by orbital debris
in 1979, breaking up into over 50 pieces.

Early Bird

Early Bird

Delta D Intelsat 1

Delta D Intelsat 1

April 6: Launch of Intelsat 1 (Early Bird) on a Delta D rocket. It was
the first commercial geosynchronous communications satellite
(Syncom was the first non commercial). It provided the first live
TV coverage of a spaceflight recovery with the splashdown of
Gemini 6 in December 1965.
April 10: Unsuccessful launch of Soviet lunar soft lander after it
failed to reach Earth orbit. Also called E-6 #8.

April 26-29: Space Medicine Branch meeting
in New York City, NY.
Charles A. Berry, M.D. was elected President. Guest Speaker was
Dr. George E. Mueller (Associate Administrator of NASA).
Hans Georg Clamann, M.D. received the Hubertus Strughold Award.
Panels were held on:
“Progress Report on Project Gemini” (Moderated by Dr. Charles Berry)
“Life Support for Manned Spaceflight” (Moderated by Dr. Stan White)
“Physiology of Simulated Hypogravity (Water Immersion)”

Program 1965 (344.0 KiB)

Abstracts 1965 (1.1 MiB)

May 12: Launch of Luna 5 (failed Lunar soft lander also called E-6 #10).
It crashed on the moon (first Soviet lunar impact since Luna 2) after a
gyroscopic failure. A 220 km dust cloud was observed for 10 minutes
at the impact site by an observatory
May 25: Launch of Saturn I SA- 8 from LC 37B with A-104 payload
(Pegasus II) and a boiler plate Apollo capsule. All of the Saturn I/Pegasus
payloads were close to 34,000 lbs and were placed into an approximately
300 mile by 350 mile orbit.

SA-8 Launch

SA-8 Launch

June 3-7: Successful 4-day, 66-orbit flight of Gemini IV with James McDivitt
and Edward White II. Launched from LC-19, it was controlled from the
Mission Control Center in Houston for the first time. Attempted
rendezvous with the Titan second stage was unsuccessful as the details
of orbital mechanics were not well understood.  White, a particularly
strong astronaut, exited his vehicle and performed the first American
EVA (20 minutes) on June 3.  He was tethered and used a Hand Held
Maneuvering Unit, but quickly ran out of fuel. White had difficulty
returning to the Gemini spacecraft. Although very fit, the effort left
White exhausted.  One of the main goals of the flight was to show
that longer duration flights were possible. A bungee cord was used
for resistive exercises and there was concern that the astronauts would
be orthostatic as they landed upright and not supine during splashdown.
A controlled lift reentry was not possible as the on-board computer failed
on orbit 48 and they landed 80 km short. This was the first flight that
the American flag was worn on the space suit.

Gemini 4 EVA.flv

Gemini 4 EVA 2 (20.3 MiB)

GEMINI 4 (16.5 MiB)

Launch Of Gemini 4 (CBS) (28.4 MiB)

June 11: Launch of Luna 6 (failed Lunar soft lander which flew by
the Moon at 99,000 miles, also called E-6 #7). Thrusters at a mid-course
correction burn failed to cut off due to an error in the ground command.

July 14: Mariner IV Mars flyby of Mars. Closest approach to Mars
was 6,118 miles (9800 km). The data collected radically changed the
perception of Mars. Extensive cratering found on the 22 photographs
that were taken indicated that weather and water erosion had been
minimal for several billion years and that the planet was geologically
inactive. The lack of a magnetosphere meant that the surface was not
protected from solar radiation. The atmosphere was calculated to be
only 4.1-7.0 millibars by radio occulation. This was a tenth of the
predicted result and meant that water could not exist in liquid or even
solid form. The polar caps therefore were composed of CO2 dry ice
and not water ice. It also indicated that the atmosphere was almost
all CO2 and without water vapor or nitrogen. The conclusion was
that Mars was Moon-like and not Earth-like.

Mariner 4 (625.1 KiB)

Zond 3

Zond 3

Zond 3 Lunar Photo

Zond 3 Lunar Photo

July 18: Launch of Zond 3 (3MV-4 #3) which returned 25 photos
during a Lunar flyby. Closest approach was 9200 km. It was originally
to be a Mars flyby, but the launch window was missed. After passing
the Moon it continued on a Mars trajectory (Mars was no longer in
the correct position) and served as a test flight.

Soviet US Mars Programs (128.0 KiB)

Difficult Road To Mars (Soviet) (7.7 MiB)



July 30: Launch of Saturn I SA-10 from LC 37B with A-105 payload
(Pegasus III) and a boiler plate Apollo capsule.

August 11: Successful launch of Atlas Centaur 6 from LC-36B with
the surveyor mass model as payload (SD-2).

August 21-29: Eight-day120-orbit  flight of Gemini Titan V with L.
Gordon Cooper, Jr. and Charles Pete Conrad. Low pressure in the
fuel cells and failure of one of the thrusters in their maneuvering
propulsion system limited the mission. Cooper performed several
medical tests using inflatable thigh cuffs. Recovery was 130 km
short due to ground error in the software. Controllable flight during
recovery was demonstrated using asymmetrical lift and a virtual
rendezvous was successful demonstrating apogee adjust, phase adjust,
plane change, and a coelliptical maneuver. No medical problems
were found to prevent longer (14-day) flights. This was the first
American flight to break the duration record for space flight.

Launch Of Gemini 5 (CBS) (22.2 MiB)

October 7: Launch of Luna 7 (failed Lunar soft lander which impacted
the Moon). E-6 #11. The astronavigational system was set at the wrong
angle and the craft lost attitude control during the landing phase.
October 25: Unsuccessful launch from LC14 of the Atlas Agena
target vehicle (GATV-5002) for Gemini VI. Schirra and Stafford
on Gemini VI were waiting in their spacecraft to launch from
LC19 ninety minutes later for a rendezvous attempt with the Agena.
The Agena stage exploded on ignition necessitating the canceling
of the Gemini VI flight which was replanned as Gemini VIA to
rendezvous with Gemini VII.
Launch of Atlas Agena 6 (CBS) PT1.mp4
Launch of Atlas Agena 6 (CBS) PT2.mp4



November 16: France launches their first satellite (Asterix) on
a Diamant A rocket from Hammaguir, Algeria.

Asterix Animation (1.1 MiB)

Diamant A.flv

Venera 2

Venera 2

Venera 2 (2)

Venera 2

November 12: Launch of Venera 2 (3MV-4), an intended Venus
flyby. Communications failure enroute. Closest approach was on
2/27/66 at 24,000 km.

Venera 3

Venera 3

3MV Spacecraft

3MV Spacecraft

November 16: Launch of Venera 3 (3MV-3), an intended Venus
soft lander which impacted Venus on March 1, 1966. It was the
first spacecraft to impact Venus. Communications failure occurred
on approach to Venus with no data returned.

Soviet Venus Program (51.0 KiB)

December 4-18: American astronauts Frank Borman and Jim Lovell
fly Gemini Titan VII for fourteen days (206 orbits) after launch
from LC19, setting an endurance record that will remain unbroken
until 1970. Gemini VI performed a rendezvous on December 15
(first rendezvous by two manned space crafts). They took off their
spacesuits for the first time. They performed resistive exercises
with a bungee cord and participated in a series of nutritional studies.
The fuel cells failed the last two days of the flight, but the spacecraft
relied on battery power. They landed 11.9 km from the reentry
target – demonstrating a controlled precision landing.

Gemini 7 Space Endurance (13.8 MiB)

CBS News Coverage of The Gemini 7 Splashdown and Recovery Part 1.flv

December 6: Launch of Luna 8 (failed Lunar soft lander which
impacted the Moon). Failure was due to loss of attitude control
during the landing phase. Also called E-6 #12. Eleventh consecutive
failure of the Soviet E-6 program to achieve a soft lunar landing.

Gemini 6 Launch Pad Abort

Gemini 6 Launch Pad Abort

Gemini 6 Abort from Gemini 7

Gemini 6 Abort from Gemini 7

December 12: Launch  pad abort at LC19 of Gemini VIA with Schirra
and Stafford. Ignition was shut down by the onboard computer after
a plug prematurely released. Analysis later showed that this was
fortuitous as thrust was insufficient due to a plastic cover being left
on the gas generator port. Schirra elected not to eject the crew
which allowed another launch attempt three days later.

Aborted Launch  Gemini 6 (Air-to-Grd).mp4
Aborted Launch  Gemini 6 (CBS).mp4

December 15-16: Wally Schirra and Thomas Stafford fly Gemini
Titan VIA to a rendezvous with Borman and Lovell in Gemini
VII on the fourth orbit. During the three orbit station keeping,
they closed to within 30 cm. This was the first rendezvous in space.
Reentry after 16 orbits was only 18 km from the reentry
target  – demonstrating the first controlled precision landing.
This was the first recovery that was televised live.

Launch of Gemini 6 (CBS).mp4

Gemini 6 And 7 (NASA) (5.0 MiB)

Gemini 6 And 7 NASA- #1 (9.9 MiB)

Gemini 6 And 7 Rendezvous (1.2 MiB)

December 16: Launch of Pioneer 6.

Journal of Aviation Medicine articles:
Eugster, J. What does space flight teach us?

36040345-1 (142.6 KiB)

JAM    1965    36: 345-350.

Felig, P. Observations on rats exposed to a space cabin atmosphere for two weeks.

36090858-1 (316.4 KiB)

                                                        JAM    1965    36: 858-863.

Brady, J.F., Newson, B.D. Large excursion rotary tracking of target and
target light in a space station simulator revolving at 7.5 10.0 and 12.0 rpm.

36040332-1 (729.5 KiB)

                                                       JAM    1965    36: 332-342.

Bazvkin, V. Radiation hazards in outer space.

36121194-1 (62.8 KiB)

                                                      JAM   1965   36: 1194-1195.

Langham, W.H., Brooks, P.M., Grahn, D. Radiation biology
and space environmental parameters in manned spacecraft design and operations.
JAM  1965   36 S: 1.

36121194-1 (62.8 KiB)

36020014-1 (781.8 KiB)

36020042-1 (108.7 KiB)

Newsom, B D, Brady, J F, Goble, G J. Equilibrium and walking
changes observed at 5, 7 1/2, 10  and 12 rpm in the revolving space station simulator.

36040322-1 (258.4 KiB)

                                                       JAM    1965    36: 322-326.

Petrocelli, A.W. Survey of Soviet activity in the use of active
chemicals for space cabin air revitalization.

36121187-1 (155.9 KiB)

                                                      JAM   1965  36: 1187-1191.

Miller, P.B., Leverett, S.D. Tolerance to transfer (+Gx) and
headward (+Gz) acceleration after prolonged bed rest.

36010013-1 (106.6 KiB)

                                                         JAM    1965    36: 13-15.

Miller, P B, Johnson, R L, Lamb, L E. Effects of moderate physical
exercise during four weeks of bed rest in circulatory functions in  man.

36111077-1 (192.6 KiB)

                                                      JAM 1965 36: 1077-1082.

Streimer, I., Getzkin, A.J, Wendrow, B. System design costs
and considerations as a function of maintaining space crew physical fitness.

36090830-1 (117.2 KiB)

                                                       JAM    1965    36: 830-833.

Sasaki, E H. Effect of transient weightlessness on binocular depth perception.

36040343-1 (92.6 KiB)

                                                          JAM    1965    36: 343-344.

Simons, J.C, Walk, D.E, Sears, C.W. Motion performance of
pressure-suited subjects under zero and lunar gravity conditions.

36050406-1 (366.3 KiB)

                                                        JAM    1965    36: 406-414.

Classics In Space Medicine - Space Suit Motion Performance (516.5 KiB)

Wallman, H, Steele, J.A, Lubitz, J.A. Multi-filter system for water reclamation.

36010035-1 (171.4 KiB)

                                                          JAM    1965    36: 35-39.

Wilson, C.L. Soviet high altitude pressure suit development, 1934-1955.

36090874-1 (114.5 KiB)

                                                     JAM    1965    36: 874-877.

Pierson WR, Rich GQ. Oxygen Cost of Work when the Body
Weight is not Lifted Against Gravity.

36010044-1 (81.9 KiB)

                                                         JAM    1965    36: 44-46.

Keating DA, Weiswurm K, Filsum GW. Movement of Respired
Gas in Manned Space Enclosures.

36030206-1 (346.5 KiB)

                                                         JAM    1965    36: 206-210.

Adams CR, Hanff G. Some Human Factors Considerations for
Orbital Maintenance and Materials Transfer.

36030223-1 (384.3 KiB)

                                                         JAM    1965    36: 223-230.

Speckmann EW, Smith KJ, Vanderveen JE, Homer GM,
Dunco DW. Nutritional Acceptabilityof a Dehydrated Diet.

36030256-1 (152.4 KiB)

                                                       JAM    1965    36: 256-260.

White WJ. Effects of Transient Weightlessness on Brightness Discrimination.

36040327-1 (189.6 KiB)

                                                         JAM    1965    36: 327-331.

Degner EA, Ikels KG, Allen TH. Dissolved Nitrogen and Bends
in Oxygen-Nitrogen Mixtures During Exercise at Decreased Pressures.

36050418-1 (194.3 KiB)

                                                         JAM    1965    36: 418-425.

Vogt FB. Effect of Extremity Cuff-Tourniquets on Tilt Table
Tolerance after Water Immersion.

36050442-1 (372.9 KiB)

JAM    1965    36: 442-447.

Vogt FB, Johnson PC. Study of Effect of Water Immersion
on Healthy Adult Male Subjects: Plasma Volume and Fluid-Electrolyte Changes.
36050447-1.pdf                                                          JAM    1965    36: 447-451.

Babinsky AD. Water Regeneration Test Unit for Zero Gravity Operation.

36070623-1 (214.3 KiB)

JAM    1965    36: 623-628.

Graybiel A, Kennedy RS, Knoblock EC, Guedry FE, Mertz W,
McLeod ME, Colehour JK, Miller Ef, Fregly AR. Effects of Exposure to a Rotating Environment
(10 RPM) on Four Aviators for a Period of Four Days.

36080733-1 (813.9 KiB)

JAM    1965    36: 733-754.

Classics In Space Medicine - Slow Rotating Room (427.7 KiB)

Harbington TJ, Edwards DK, Wortz EC. Metabolic Rates in
Pressurized Pressure Suits.

36090825-1 (164.8 KiB)

JAM    1965    36: 825-830.

Alexeyev I. At the Frontiers of the Unexplored.

36090888-1 (30.6 KiB)

JAM    1965    36: 888.

Butcher BA, Eastis JF, Clark DA. Method for Determination of
Calciumin Serum, Parotid Fluid and Urine in the Weightless State.

36111032-1 (101.3 KiB)

JAM    1965    36: 1032-1035.

Botan EA. Examination of Organized Elements from the
Orgueil Meteorite Quantitative Flourescence Microscopy.
36111069-1.pdf                                              JAM    1965    36: 1069-1076.

Classics In Space Medicine - Meteorite (516.9 KiB)

Lamb LE, Stevens PM. Influence of Lower Negative Pressure on
the Level of Hydration During Bed Rest.

36121145-1 (190.8 KiB)

JAM    1965    36: 1145-1151.

Stevens PM, Lynch TN. Effects of 9-Alphafluorohydrocortisone
on Dehydration due to Prolonged Bed Rest.

36121151-1 (173.6 KiB)

<align=”right”; JAM    1965    36: 1151-1156.

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