Strughold Award


In 2006, the Space Medicine Association Executive Committee was asked to remove Dr. Strughold’s name from the Strughold Award due to alleged atrocities committed during World War II. After a two year investigation, which included obtaining classified files from the U.S. Dept. of Justice through the Freedom of Information Act, the Committee decided that there was no evidence of any atrocities, declined to remove his name and officially reported this to the Aerospace Medical Association Council and the Space Medicine Association (SMA) membership. The allegations resurfaced through a front page article in the Wall Street Journal published on Nov. 30, 2012. The SMA Executive Committee decided to suspend the Strughold Award for 2013, then released the details of the investigation to all members of the SMA, and asked for a vote from the entire SMA membership whether to retire or to continue the Strughold Award.  Links are available below for the Wall Street Journal article and the results of the investigation.

On October 1, 2013, the Space Medicine Association’s Executive Committee announced that the Space Medicine Association Strughold Award had been retired. The award had been given every year for the past 50 years “for dedication and outstanding contributions in advancing the frontiers of Space Medicine, and/or for sustained contributions to furthering the goals of the Space Medicine Association”.  As the most prestigious award sponsored by the organization, it had been given to the most distinguished leaders in operational and research oriented space medicine. While there was no evidence to demonstrate that Dr. Strughold was directly involved in any atrocities during World War II or that he was a member of the Nazi party, the award created controversy which was distracting to the main work and goals of the Space Medicine Association. The decision was the result of extensive deliberations and a formal vote by the Space Medicine Association members.

2012 Smith L. Johnston III, M.D., M.S.
Smith Johnston is from Woodstock, Georgia and received his Bachelor of Science in biology in 1976 and his Doctor of Medicine in 1981 from Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia. From 1984 to 1990, Dr. Johnston completed his residencies in Internal and Aerospace Medicine from Wright State University, where he also received his Masters of Science in Aerospace Medicine and was Chief Resident in Internal Medicine in 1987-88.

Dr. Johnston is a member of the Clinical Faculties, at the University of Texas Medical Branch, in the Deptartment of Preventive, Occupational and Environmental Medicine in Galveston, Texas and at Wright State University, in the Department of Aerospace Medicine in Dayton, Ohio.   He has served on the Advisory and Oversight Committees for the National Science Foundation’s American Polar Medicine Program.

Dr. Johnston was the Health Maintenance Facility Project (Space Station Freedom) physician with Krug/Wyle Life Sciences from 1991-1994. He is currently with the NASA Medical Operations Branch of the NASA Johnson Space Center where he has been a Medical Officer and Flight Surgeon since 1994.. He has been the lead physician for the International Space Station Emergency Crew Return Vehicle development and has supported over 25 Shuttle missions (12 as lead Crew Surgeon), including the unfortunate STS-107 Columbia mission. He recently completed the assignment as the lead Crew Surgeon for the STS-129 and STS-132 missions and the ISS Expedition 16 and 29 missions. He is the Lead for the NASA and the International Space Station Fatigue Management Teams. He has published numerous articles on operational space medicine and parabolic research on methods for providing Advanced Life Support and medical evacuation/transport in space.

            Dr. Johnston is Board Certified in Aerospace Medicine from the American Board of Preventive Medicine and a Fellow of the Aerospace Medical Association. He was President of the Space Medicine Association in 2005, and the President of the Society of NASA Flight Surgeons in 2006, and received the Society of NASA Flight Surgeone’s Lovelace Award in 2011.

2011 Michael Reed Barratt, M.D., M.S.
Mike Barratt is the well deserved recipient of the2011 Humbertus Strughold Award. He is well known to the Aerospace Medical Association on many levels including Associate Editor for Space Medicine for the journal Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine as well as the recipient of the W. Randolph Lovelace Award (1998) and the Julian Ward Award (1992).

Mike has contributed extensively to the field of space medicine inlcuding his pioneering efforts in the design of medical systems for Space Station Freedom and the International Space Station. As a specialist in Internal Medicine and Aerospace Medicine, he served as a NASA flight surgeon during the Shuttle-Mir missions. He was the Medical Operations lead for the International Space Station and he was serving as the lead crew surgeon for the first ISS crew when he was selected as an astronaut in 2000. On his first space flight in 2009 he launched on a Soyuz spacecraft from Kazakhstan, living and working for six months as a Flight Engineer on the International Space Station. He performed two EVA’s (extra vehicular activities) in a Russian Orlan spacesuit during his tour of duty. Earlier this year Mike served as a Mission Specialist aboard STS-133, the final trip into space for the shuttle Discovery.

In addition to multiple scientific publications and presentations, Mike is the Senior Editor for the textbook, Principles of Clinical Medicine for Space Flight, published in 2008. Mike Barratt’s career serves as a tribute to the man for whom this award was named, the “father of space medicine”, Humbertus Strughold.
Additional Information

PERSONAL DATA: Born on April 16, 1959 in Vancouver, Washington.  Considers Camas, Washington, to be his home town.  Married to the former Michelle Lynne Sasynuik.  They have five children.  His father and mother, Joseph and Donna Barratt, reside in Camas, Washington.  Personal and recreational interests include writing, sailing, boat restoration and maintenance, family and church activities.

EDUCATION: Graduated from Camas High School, Camas, WA, 1977.  B.S., Zoology, University of Washington, 1981.  M.D., Northwestern University, 1985.  Completed three year residency in Internal Medicine at Northwestern University 1988, completed Chief Residency year at Veterans Administration Lakeside Hospital in Chicago, 1989; Completed residency and Master’s program in Aerospace Medicine, Wright State University, 1991.  Board certified in Internal and Aerospace Medicine.

ORGANIZATIONS: Aerospace Medical Association and the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

SPECIAL HONORS:  W. Randolph Lovelace Award (1998), Society of NASA Flight Surgeons;  Rotary National Award for Space Achievement Foundation Nominee (1998);  Melbourne W. Boynton Award (1995), American Astronautical Society;  USAF Flight Surgeons Julian Ward Award (1992);  Wright State University Outstanding Graduate Student, Aerospace Medicine (1991);  Alpha Omega Alpha Medical Honor Society, Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, IL (1988);  Phi Beta Kappa, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (1981).

EXPERIENCE: Dr. Barratt came to NASA JSC in May 1991 employed as a project physician with KRUG Life Sciences working on medical systems for Space Station Freedom.  In July 92 he was assigned as NASA Flight Surgeon working in Space Shuttle Medical Operations.  In January 94 he was assigned to the joint US/Russian Shuttle – Mir Program, working and training extensively in the Cosmonaut Training Center, Star City, Russia in support of the Mir-18 / STS-71 and subsequent missions.

From July 95 through July 98, he served as Medical Operations Lead for the International Space Station (ISS).  A frequent traveler to Russia, he worked with counterparts at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center and Institute of Biomedical Problems, as well as other International Partner centers.  Dr. Barratt served as lead crew surgeon for first expedition crew to ISS from July 98 until selected as an astronaut candidate.  He serves as Associate Editor for Space Medicine for the journal Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine, and is senior editor of the textbook, Principles of Clinical Medicine for Space Flight.

NASA EXPERIENCE:  Selected as a mission specialist by NASA in July 2000, Dr. Barratt reported for training in August 2000.  Following the completion of 2 years of training and evaluation, he was assigned technical duties in the Astronaut Office Station Operations Branch.

Assigned to long duration flight training in 2005, Dr. Barratt launched on Soyuz TMA-14 on March 26, 2009 to the International Space Station and served as a member of Expeditions 19 and 20.  This time period  included the transition from three to six permanent ISS crewmembers, two EVAs, two visiting Space Shuttles, and arrival of the first Japanese HTV.  Completing 199 days in space, Dr. Barratt landed on October 11, 2009.

STS-133 (February 24 – March 9, 2011), was the 39th and final mission for Space Shuttle Discovery.  During the 13-day flight, the Discovery crew delivered the Permanent Multipurpose Module (PMM) and the fourth Express Logistics Carrier (ELC) to the ISS.  The mission’s two space walks assisted in outfitting the truss of the station and completed a variety of other tasks designed to upgrade station systems.  The mission was accomplished in 202 Earth orbits, traveling 5.3 million miles in 307 hours and 3 minutes.

2010 Irene Duhart Long, M.D.

Irene Duhart Long, M.D., is the Kennedy Space Center Chief Medical Officer. Dr. Long has been at the Center since 1982. She is responsible for the Center-level coordination and integration of Center elements providing Occupational Medicine, Aerospace Medicine, and Environmental Health functions. Dr. Long provides executive leadership and direction serving as the interface with Center senior management and organizations to assure support to employee health. She provides long-range and strategic planning and develops related initiatives to assure proactive, preventative approaches to comprehensive medical and environmental health programs.

From 1994 to 2000, Dr. Long served as the Director, Biomedical Office, John F. Kennedy Space Center. The Biomedical Office (JJ) provided program management of the Center’s Aerospace and Occupational Medicine, life sciences research, and environmental health programs, and operational management of the life sciences support facilities. The Biomedical Office provided and coordinated medical, environmental health, and environmental/ecological monitoring support to launch and landing activities and day-to-day institutional functions.

Prior to her assignment as Director of JJ in July 1994, Dr. Long was the Chief, Medical and Environmental Health Office in JJ. The Medical and Environmental Health Office was responsible for assuring a comprehensive Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health program directed toward the maintenance of the health of the KSC workforce. Medical operations activities included the provision and planning of emergency medical services in support of STS launch and landing activities. Additional responsibilities included coordination of human Life Sciences Flight Experiment requirements and operational management of the Baseline Data Collection Facility used for pre- and post-flight physiological data collection. Research related activities included medical screening and monitoring of research laboratory subjects and participation in operational research protocol development and implementation.

Dr. Long graduated from East High School in Cleveland, Ohio. She attended Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois, and received a Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) degree in Pre-medicine/Biology in 1973. She received a Doctor of Medicine (M.D.) degree from the St. Louis University School of Medicine in 1977. After two years of a General Surgery residency at the Cleveland Clinic and the Mount Sinai Hospital of Cleveland, she completed a three-year residency in Aerospace Medicine through Wright State University School of Medicine in Dayton, Ohio, and received a Masters of Science (M.S.) degree in Aerospace Medicine.

Dr. Long’s previous NASA experience during her Aerospace Medicine residency includes rotations at the Ames Research Center from July 1981 until March 1982, and at KSC from April 1982 until her appointment in July 1982.

Dr. Long is a member of the Aerospace Medical Association and its affiliated Space Medicine Branch, and the Society of NASA Flight Surgeons. She received the Society Presidential Award in 1995, and served as its President in 1999. In 1986 she received the Equal Opportunity Action Committee Group Achievement Award, and the KSC Federal Woman of the Year Award. In 1998, Dr. Long was presented with the Women in Aerospace Outstanding Achievement Award.

Dr. Long, a native of Cleveland, Ohio, presently lives in Merritt Island, Florida.

2009 James M. Vanderploeg, MD,
Dr. Vanderploeg has nearly 30 years of experience in aerospace medicine with experience in both medical operations support for space flight as well as the practice of civilian aviation medicine. He currently is an Associate Professor in the Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health at the University of Texas Medical Branch in Galveston, Texas, where he provides consulting work in the aerospace industry as well as faculty responsibilities for the Aerospace Medicine residency.

Dr. Vanderploeg is a Fellow and Past President of the Aerospace Medical Association, Past President of the Space Medicine Branch (now Association) and Past President of the Society of NASA Flight Surgeons, an FAA Senior Aviation Medical Examiner, and is Board Certified by the American Board of Preventive Medicine in both Aerospace Medicine and Occupational Medicine. He also has served as the Executive Director of the American Board of Preventive Medicine for the past 11 years.

Dr. Vanderploeg’s NASA career included serving as Crew Surgeon or Deputy Crew Surgeon for several Shuttle missions during the early years of the Space Shuttle program. He was the Chief of the Flight Medicine Clinic followed by Chief of the Medical Operations Branch of the Medical Sciences Division at the NASA Johnson Space Center before being appointed as the first director of the Space Biomedical Research Institute.

Following NASA, he was the Chair of the Occupational Medicine Department for Kelsey-Seybold Clinic, Executive Vice President and General Manager for Krug Life Sciences, and Program Manager for Wyle Laboratories. Dr. Vanderploeg has been active in several projects to develop medical guidelines for commercial space tourists and crew members. He currently is the Chief Medical Officer for Virgin Galactic and chairs their medical advisory panel. He has conducted medical evaluations and centrifuge training on the Virgin Galactic Founders – the first 100 individuals to fly on Space Ship Two.

2008 Richard Jennings, M.D.
Dr. Jennings graduated from Oklahoma State University and the University of Oklahoma School of Medicine. He completed residency training in obstetrics and gynecology at the University of Oklahoma Tulsa Medical College and practiced for eight years in Stillwater, Oklahoma. In 1987, he completed a residency in aerospace medicine at Wright State University. He is a diplomat of the American Board of Preventive Medicine in Aerospace Medicine and the American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

He served as a NASA Johnson Space Center flight surgeon from 1987-1995 and was the Chief of the Flight Medicine Clinic and Chief of Medical Operations-Space Shuttle. During this time, he was the crew surgeon or deputy crew surgeon on 15 Shuttle missions and provided direct mission support to 45 Shuttle flights. He has served as the President of the AsMA, the Space Medicine Association, and the Society of NASA Flight Surgeons.

In 1995, he joined the University of Texas Medical Branch in Galveston where he currently serves as the residency director of the UTMB/NASA Aerospace Medicine Residency program and director of Clinical Preventive Medicine. He is currently involved on the International Artificial Gravity research project at UTMB. He still provides astronaut gynecological care and consultation services at the Flight Medicine Clinic at the Johnson Space Center. He also coordinates the Wyle Laboratories/UTMB physicians that support NASA at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia. He is the medical director for Space Adventures where he consults in commercial spaceflight space medicine. He served as the crew surgeon for Drs. Greg Olsen and Charles Simonyi on their Russian Soyuz flights to the International Space Station and is currently assigned to the Russian Soyuz TMA flight of Richard Garriott.

2007 Clarence Jernigan, M.D.
Dr. Jernigan completed his M.D. at Baylor College of Medicine in 1960 and then completed residencies in Family Medicine and Aerospace Medicine. He joined NASA in 1964 and was a Remote Site Medical Flight Controller for Gemini 3, 4, and 5. He was the Crew Flight Surgeon for Apollo 7, 8, 12, and 15. He was the Deputy Crew Surgeon and the Recovery Area Quarantine Manager on board the U.S.S. Hornet for Apollo 11. The evaluation of the physiological capability of nitrogen/oxygen mixtures on the launch pad following the Apollo 1 fire was one of his most notable accomplishments. He was Chief Flight Medicine Branch at NASA-JSC from 1968-1972.
2006 Jeffrey R. Davis, M.D.
Dr. Davis began his flight surgeon career at the NASA-Johnson Space Center Flight Medicine Clinic in 1984. He participated in the Challenger accident investigation with the development of the escape team report. He became Chief, Flight Medicine Clinic in 1985 and Chief, Medical Operations Branch in 1987. Dr. Davis left NASA in 1991 to become the Corporate Medical Director for American Airlines. In 1995, he entered academia as the Director of the Preventive Medicine Residency Office. He returned to NASA in 2001 as the Assistant Associate Administrator for Crew Health and Safety responsible for the development of space medicine including requirements, policy, and budget. In 2002, he became the Director, Space Life Sciences at the Johnson Space Center where he provides science and health care leadership to promote safety, health and performance of human space exploration. During his career, Dr. Davis has won numerous awards including the NASA exceptional Service Medal, the Silver Snoopy Award from the Astronaut Office, and the Louis H. Bauer Founders Award from the Aerospace Medical Association. Dr. Davis led the Space and Life Sciences Directorate through the difficult period following the Columbia accident establishing comprehensive response teams for life sciences including recovery and investigation teams, critical incident stress teams, clinical and family support teams and International Space Station replanning teams. For his outstanding contributions in space medicine, Dr. Davis is awarded the Hubertus Strughold Award.
2005 William S. Augerson, M.D.
Dr. Augerson was one of the original physicians in the Space Task Group at Langley Air Force Base. He, along with Stan White, M.D. and Robert Voas, Ph.D. were the Life Sciences Consultants to the Space Task Group. In this role, he provided recommendations on spacecraft design and operational issues. These included recommendations against an egress system that required unbolting from outside the spacecraft, a window for the astronauts to see out, and the capability for the astronaut to control the spacecraft. He also participated in research to answer urgent questions such as the effects of breathing 100% oxygen under high sustained G forces and the use of positive pressure breathing as a G-force countermeasure. In 1967, Dr. Augerson was recommended for consideration to the 1967 scientist-astronaut selection program and became one of the 24 finalists, however, was not selected. After his years with the Space Task Group, he returned to the Army. He continued to be involved in space activities including serving as president of the first Army board screening Army applicants for mission specialist. He was DOD telemedicine efforts and participated in a number of NASA telemedicine projects including support of the Armenian earthquake recovery in the former Soviet Union. Dr. Augerson is awarded the Hubertus Strughold Award for his significant contributions to the space program and particularly to the Space Task Group.
2004 Fred Kelly, M.D.
Dr. Kelly is a retired dual designated flight surgeon/naval aviator. His NASA career began in 1959 as an aeromedical flight controller for Project Mercury. Dr. Kelly served as a NASA flight surgeon during the Mercury, Gemini, Apollo and Skylab programs. He was the flight surgeon present at the tragic Apollo 1 file and headed the medical panel during the accident investigation. Dr. Kelly also wrote a fascinating book about these early programs and his experiences entitled “America’s Astronauts and Their Indestructible Spirit”. Dr. Kelly has also authored several other books about space including the fictional book, “Mars Journal”. For his significant contributions to the early space program, Dr. Kelly is awarded the Hubertus Strughold Award.
2003 STS-107 Crew
The STS-107 crew, including commander Rick Husband, pilot Willy McCool, and missions specialists Michael Anderson, Laurel Clark, M.D., Dave Brown, M.D., and Kalpana Chawla along with Israeli payload specialist Ilan Ramon, were lost when Columbia broke apart on re-entry February 1, 2003 just 16 minutes before landing. The STS-107 crew had completed a very successful science mission including a number of life science experiments. The Hubertus Strughold Award is presented to them posthumously in recognition of their significant achievements and their ultimate sacrifice in support of the space program
2002 Earl H. Wood, M.D., Ph.D.


Earl H. Wood, MD, Ph.D., who served The American Physiological Society as the Society’s 53rd President from 1980-1981 passed away on March 18, 2009, at age 97.

Wood was born Jan. 1, 1912, in the front room of a house on Walnut Streeet in Mankato, Minn., his family eventually moved to a 20-acre farm overlooking the Minnesota River just outside Mankato. His father, William C., who worked in real estate, also acquired a large Victorian lakeside hotel overlooking Lake Washington in Le Sueur County, Minn., where the family spent summers.  On Dec. 20, 1936, he married Ada Catherine Peterson of Big Lake, Minn. A graduate of Macalester College in St. Paul, she helped to put him through medical school. In later years the couple bought a farm along the Zumbro River near Rock Dell, where they hiked and nurtured walnut trees.

Wood attended Macalester College in St. Paul, MN, graduating in 1934.  At that time, he entered the School of Medicine of the University of Minnesota but gave up his medical studies temporarily for training in Maurice Visscher’s department, where he received the M.S. degree in 1939. Two years later (1941) he was awarded both the M.D. and the Ph.D. degrees, the latter for research on water and electrolytes of cardiac muscle, especially under the influence of digitalis. He spent 1940-41 at the University of Pennsylvania as an NRC fellow in the Department of Pharmacology, and for the following year he was instructor in pharmacology at Harvard. In 1942 Wood returned to Minnesota, to the Aeromedical Unit of the Mayo Foundation Laboratories, where he progressed steadily in rank in the Mayo Graduate School and then in the Mayo Medical School to become professor of physiology and of medicine in 1951. He officially retired from these positions in 1982.

Wood became an APS member in 1943. He was active at first mainly in the Circulation Group and served as a member of its Steering Committee (1962-1964; chairman, 1963-1964). He received its Carl J. Wiggers Award in 1968. He was elected to APS Council in 1977 and became president elect in 1979. From 1978-1980 he was chairman of the Centennial Celebration Committee, and from 1982 to 1985 he served on the Finance Committee. Responsibilities with FASEB ran very much in parallel with those in the Society; in addition to his year as president of FASEB (1981-1982), he was a member of the Long-Range Planning and Development Fund Committees (1982-1985) and the Public Affairs Committee (1984-1985).

With his colleagues, Wood played a pivotal role in the design of investigations to clarify the problems of sudden pilot blackout related to increased gravitational force caused by dive-bombing and high-speed combat maneuvers. A human centrifuge was installed in the Mayo Medical Sciences building.  Wood often served as a research subject, testing human exposure to G-forces. The anti-G suit, developed with the cooperation of a female undergarment manufacturer, became standard equipment in the Air Force.

Following World War II, Wood organized a laboratory at Mayo for the study of human circulation resulting in the development of an ear oximeter, which could provide immediate readings of oxygen saturation levels in the blood. The instrumentation was sometimes tested on three of his young children. His lab also perfected cardiac catheterization as a diagnostic tool which, using blue and green dye concentrations, led to real-time monitoring of circulation during cardiac surgery. By the 1960s Wood’s research and teaching attracted graduate students from Mayo as well as from institutions around the world.

His later interests centered on a high-speed, computer-based X-ray scanning system that would provide three-dimensional views of the moving heart, lungs, and circulation. It was an idea he hatched while watching football instant replays on television. Although the imaging machine, called the “dynamic spatial reconstructor,” he developed while head of the Biodynamics Research Unit at Mayo was superceded by other techniques, his early dream of non-invasive, accurate diagnosis has become common practice.

Wood has published over 700 articles and numerous book chapters.  His prolific academic career resulted in countless honors, awards, and distinctions from many professional associations.  Wood’s awards include the Presidential Certificate of Merit from Harry Truman in 1947 for his development of the anti-G suit. He received from Macalester College an honorary degree of D.Sc. in 1950 and a Distinguished Citizen Award in 1974. In 1963 he was given awards by the Aerospace Medicine Association and by Modern Medicine. The American College of Chest Physicians (1974), the Mayo Foundation (1978 and 1984), and the Biomedical Engineering Society (1978) have all honored him with lectureships. He is an honorary member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (1977) and of the American College of Cardiology (1978). In 1982, he received an honorary degree, doctor of medicine, from the University of Bern, Switzerland, and in the following year he was given both the Humboldt Prize for Senior U.S. Scientists by the government of West Germany and the John Phillips Memorial Award of the American College of Physicians.  In 1995 Wood received the Ray G. Daggs Award for his distinguished long-term service to the science of physiology and, in particular, to the American Physiological Society. His most recent distinction particularly pleased his children: In 2002, former Mayo fellow Peter Osypka, who founded a successful medical instrumentation company based on his work in Wood’s lab, dedicated “Earl H. Wood Strasse” in Rheinfelden, Germany.

Wood is survived by four children, Phoebe Wood Busch (Nancy Miller) of Denver, Mark G. (Molly) of Fresno, Calif., Guy H. (Julie Croy) of Corvallis, Ore., and E. Andrew (Krista Coleman) of Rochester; four grandchildren and a great-granddaughter (in utero); a sister-in-law, Helen Nichols Wood of Montrose, Colo.; and numerous nieces and nephews. He was preceded in death by his wife in 2000, and his five siblings.

His legacy will live on in his numerous fundamental contributions to the fields of Physiology, operational Aerospace Medicine, and most importantly through the countless trainees and students that have had the privilege to work with him and get to know him as a world class research, teacher, and wonderful family man and human being.

2001 John Charles, Ph.D.
Dr. Charles has been a researcher at the Johnson Space Center since 1983. He came to NASA as a postdoctoral fellow after completion of his Ph.D. in physiology and biophysics at the University of Kentucky. In 1985 he was hired as a civil servant with NASA. Dr. Charles has conducted extensive research on the cardiovascular effects of space flight. He is currently the mission scientist for STS-107 and STS-118 multi-disciplinary Spacehab Research Double Module missions. In recognition of his extensive and outstanding life-long contributions to the space life sciences and space medicine, Dr. Charles is awarded the Hubertus Strughold Award.


As project scientist for human life sciences at NASA’s Johnson Space Center (JSC), my job is to oversee all research projects developed for shuttle/Mir flights that use humans as subjects. The Shuttle/Mir program is a series of joint U.S.-Russian missions involving NASA’s space shuttle and the Russian space station Mir.

I’m a physiologist and biophysicist by training. I’ve had this particular job since September 1994. My primary responsibility right now is to provide scientific and technical guidance to researchers working on human life sciences investigations for Shuttle/Mir flights.

I followed a fairly typical career path toward this job. I majored in biophysics at Ohio State University (B.S., 1977), and I earned my doctorate in physiology and biophysics at the University of Kentucky (Ph.D., 1983). In 1983, I moved to Houston to work with NASA and I have been here ever since.

I started out at JSC as a post-doctoral research associate working in the medical research branch. In 1985 I got a “real job” as a cardiovascular physiologist in the biomedical research branch at JSC. I’ve been involved with cardiovascular research at NASA ever since, overseeing investigations planned for shuttle, Shuttle-Mir and future International Space Station flights. I have been the principal investigator or a collaborator on a number of flight experiments. Since 1992 I’ve been an adjunct (that is, part-time) faculty member of the U.S. Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine at Brooks Air Force Base in San Antonio, Texas.

What I like best about my job is that I get to be involved intimately in human spaceflight. And I think it’s important work. What I like least about my job is the fact that I have to work in a BIG organization with lots of people who have different needs and desires.

No one person influenced me to become a space life scientist. But all of my science teachers, and some astronauts as well, inspired me to choose the career path I’m following. I have been interested in spaceflight for most of my life; I have wanted to be an astronaut since I was seven. When I was 12, however, I started wearing glasses. In those days, corrected vision was grounds for disqualification from “astronaut-hood.” (It’s okay for astronauts to wear glasses these days.)

I remember that in January 1969, right after Christmas vacation, my junior high science teacher, Mr. Pelligrino, welcomed me back from NASA’s Apollo 8 mission. He knew that I had been glued to the television for the duration of this flight. That kind of attention might have embarrassed other kids, but it

I was born in Rockdale, Texas (population 4,481) in 1955. When I was 10, I moved with my family to Massena, N.Y. — the opposite end of the world from Texas! When I was in my last year of high school we moved to Pittsburgh, Pa. I moved to Columbus, Ohio, for undergraduate school and Lexington, Ky. for graduate school. Now I live in Clear Lake, a community near JSC (I live four miles from my office). Houston is nearby and so is Galveston and its beaches.

I am 6’7″ (too tall to be an astronaut). I like public speaking, eating Japanese food (and most other types of food, too), and studying the history of human spaceflight. I enjoy jogging and bicycling as well, and I am learning to rollerblade. I also have a variety of other interests — geography, history, music, and just watching sunsets — which I hope make me a well-rounded person.

I have a son, Brian, who is seven years old and lives with his mother in Buffalo, N.Y. He likes reading, computers, hockey, soccer, and Chuck E. Cheese, and he comes to visit whenever his school schedule and my work schedule allow. This year I will be taking my son and my mom and dad to see a shuttle launch in Florida! A friend of mine is an astronaut on this mission and he invited us to come watch the launch.

I decided upon a goal early in my life — to get involved in spaceflight — and I have spent the rest of my life (so far, at least) trying to accomplish it. Sometimes I still feel like I’m not there yet, but other people have told me they admire my dedication and persistence. I used to believe that some day I would have the chance to fly in space. But the Challenger disaster in 1986, and subsequent events, have convinced me that I will never get the chance to go. The career I have is a pretty good “second-best,” however.

In my years at NASA I have flown on the KC-135 during parabolic flights so I know what it is like to be “weightless.” I’ve flown in airliners to Europe and Japan so I’ve seen some incredible views of Earth from high altitude. The differences between what I’ve done and seen and what I could experience in space are only a matter of degree.

I hope to keep working, either inside or outside of NASA, to help people explore space. The experience I have gained in working with complex organizations (primarily NASA and the Russian Space Agency) and using complex systems (the shuttle) will be valuable in confronting any challenges that may ahead for me. I hope that someday I might have an important position in NASA, or possibly elsewhere in the government, that would enable me to influence the direction we take in space exploration. Meanwhile, I am doing important work in an interesting place at an interesting time.

2000 Story Musgrave, M.D.
Dr. Musgrave was selected as an astronaut in 1967 after receiving his medical degree from Columbia University in 1964. Dr. Musgrave was the backup science-pilot for the first Skylab mission. He participated in the design and development of all Space Shuttle EVA equipment and has served as CAPCOM on numerous flights. He has flown on 6 space flights including STS-6, STS-5F (Spacelab-2), STS-33, STS-44, STS-61 and STS-80. Dr. Musgrave was the payload commander on STS-61, the first Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission. He has written numerous scientific papers in the areas of aerospace medicine and physiology, temperature regulation, exercise physiology and clinical surgery. For his many years of contributions to space medicine and in the area of EVA in particular, Dr. Musgrave is awarded the Hubertus Strughold Award.


PERSONAL DATA: Born August 19, 1935, in Boston, Massachusetts, but considers Lexington, Kentucky, to be his hometown. Single. Six children (one deceased). His hobbies are chess, flying, gardening, literary criticism, microcomputers, parachuting, photography, reading, running, scuba diving, and soaring.

EDUCATION: Graduated from St. Mark’s School, Southborough, Massachusetts, in 1953; received a bachelor of science degree in mathematics and statistics from Syracuse University in 1958, a master of business administration degree in operations analysis and computer programming from the University of California at Los Angeles in 1959, a bachelor of arts degree in chemistry from Marietta College in 1960, a doctorate in medicine from Columbia University in 1964, a master of science in physiology and biophysics from the University of Kentucky in 1966, and a master of arts in literature from the University of Houston in 1987.

ORGANIZATIONS: Member of Alpha Kappa Psi, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Beta Gamma Sigma, the Civil Aviation Medical Association, the Flying Physicians Association, the International Academy of Astronautics, the Marine Corps Aviation Association, the National Aeronautic Association, the National Aerospace Education Council, the National Geographic Society, the Navy League, the New York Academy of Sciences, Omicron Delta Kappa, Phi Delta Theta, the Soaring Club of Houston, the Soaring Society of America, and the United States Parachute Association.

SPECIAL HONORS: National Defense Service Medal and an Outstanding Unit Citation as a member of the United States Marine Corps Squadron VMA-212 (1954); United States Air Force Post-doctoral Fellowship (1965-1966); National Heart Institute Post-doctoral Fellowship (1966-1967); Reese Air Force Base Commander’s Trophy (1969); American College of Surgeons I.S. Ravdin Lecture (1973); NASA Exceptional Service Medals (1974 & 1986); Flying Physicians Association Airman of the Year Award (1974 & 1983); NASA Space Flight Medals (1983, 1985, 1989, 1991, 1993, 1996); NASA Distinguished Service Medal (1992).

EXPERIENCE: Musgrave entered the United States Marine Corps in 1953, served as an aviation electrician and instrument technician, and as an aircraft crew chief while completing duty assignments in Korea, Japan, Hawaii, and aboard the carrier USS WASP in the Far East.

He has flown 17,700 hours in 160 different types of civilian and military aircraft, including 7,500 hours in jet aircraft. He has earned FAA ratings for instructor, instrument instructor, glider instructor, and airline transport pilot, and U.S. Air Force Wings. An accomplished parachutist, he has made more than 500 free falls — including over 100 experimental free-fall descents involved with the study of human aerodynamics.

Dr. Musgrave was employed as a mathematician and operations analyst by the Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, New York, during 1958.

He served a surgical internship at the University of Kentucky Medical Center in Lexington from 1964 to 1965, and continued there as a U. S. Air Force post-doctoral fellow (1965-1966), working in aerospace medicine and physiology, and as a National Heart Institute post-doctoral fellow (1966-1967), teaching and doing research in cardiovascular and exercise physiology. From 1967 to 1989, he continued clinical and scientific training as a part-time surgeon at the Denver General Hospital and as a part-time professor of physiology and biophysics at the University of Kentucky Medical Center.

He has written 25 scientific papers in the areas of aerospace medicine and physiology, temperature regulation, exercise physiology, and clinical surgery.

NASA EXPERIENCE: Dr. Musgrave was selected as a scientist-astronaut by NASA in August 1967. He completed astronaut academic training and then worked on the design and development of the Skylab Program. He was the backup science-pilot for the first Skylab mission, and was a CAPCOM for the second and third Skylab missions. Dr. Musgrave participated in the design and development of all Space Shuttle extravehicular activity equipment including spacesuits, life support systems, airlocks, and manned maneuvering units. From 1979 to 1982, and 1983 to 1984, he was assigned as a test and verification pilot in the Shuttle Avionics Integration Laboratory at JSC. He served as a spacecraft communicator (CAPCOM) for STS-31, STS-35, STS-36, STS-38 and STS-41, and lead CAPCOM for a number of subsequent flights. He was a mission specialist on STS-6 in 1983, STS-51F/Spacelab-2 in 1985, STS-33 in 1989 and STS-44 in 1991, was the payload commander on STS-61 in 1993, and a mission specialist on STS-80 in 1996. A veteran of six space flights, Dr. Musgrave has spent a total of 1,281 hours 59 minutes, 22 seconds in space. Dr. Musgrave left NASA in August 1997 to pursue private interests.

SPACE FLIGHT EXPERIENCE: Dr. Musgrave first flew on STS-6, which launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on April 4, 1983, and landed at Edwards Air Force Base, California, on April 9, 1983. During this maiden voyage of Space Shuttle Challenger, the crew performed the first Shuttle deployment of an IUS/TDRS satellite, and Musgrave and Don Peterson conducted the first Space Shuttle extravehicular activity (EVA) to test the new space suits and construction and repair devices and procedures. Mission duration was 5 days, 23 minutes, 42 seconds.

On STS-51F/Spacelab-2, the crew aboard Challenger launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on July 29, 1985, and landed at Edwards Air Force Base, California, on August 6, 1985. This flight was the first pallet-only Spacelab mission, and the first mission to operate the Spacelab Instrument Pointing System (IPS). It carried 13 major experiments in astronomy, astrophysics, and life sciences. During this mission, Dr. Musgrave served as the systems engineer during launch and entry, and as a pilot during the orbital operations. Mission duration was 7 days, 22 hours, 45 minutes, 26 seconds.

On STS-33, he served aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery, which launched at night from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on November 22, 1989. This classified mission operated payloads for the Department of Defense. Following 79 orbits, the mission concluded on November 27, 1989, with a landing at sunset on Runway 04 at Edwards Air Force Base, California. Mission duration was 5 days, 7 minutes, 32 seconds.

STS-44 also launched at night on November 24, 1991. The primary mission objective was accomplished with the successful deployment of a Defense Support Program (DSP) satellite with an Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) rocket booster. In addition the crew also conducted two Military Man in Space Experiments, three radiation monitoring experiments, and numerous medical tests to support longer duration Shuttle flights. The mission was concluded in 110 orbits of the Earth with Atlantis returning to a landing on the lakebed at Edwards Air Force Base, California, on December 1, 1991. Mission duration was 6 days, 22 hours, 50 minutes, 42 seconds.

STS-61 was the first Hubble Space Telescope (HST) servicing and repair mission. Following a night launch from Kennedy Space Center on December 2, 1993, the Endeavour rendezvoused with and captured the HST. During this 11-day flight, the HST was restored to its full capabilities through the work of two pairs of astronauts during a record 5 spacewalks. Dr. Musgrave performed 3 of these spacewalks. After having travelled 4,433,772 miles in 163 orbits of the Earth, Endeavour returned to a night landing in Florida on December 13, 1993. Mission duration was 10 days, 19 hours, 59 minutes.

On STS-80 (November 19 to December 7, 1996), the crew aboard Space Shuttle Columbia deployed and retrieved the Wake Shield Facility (WSF) and the Orbiting Retrievable Far and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer (ORFEUS) satellites. The free-flying WSF created a super vacuum in its wake in which to grow thin film wafers for use in semiconductors and the electronics industry. The ORFEUS instruments, mounted on the reusable Shuttle Pallet Satellite, studied the origin and makeup of stars. In completing this mission he logged a record 278 earth orbits, traveled over 7 million miles in 17 days, 15 hours, 53 minutes.

1999 Sam L. Pool, M.D.
Dr. Pool is the Assistant Director of Space Medicine in the Space and Life Sciences Directorate at the NASA-Johnson Space Center. He has worked for NASA since the Apollo program in various positions including Chief, Medical Sciences Division. Dr. Pool worked with the Russians in support of the Phase 1 NASA-Mir flights and created the International Space Medicine Board for the medical review of crewmembers flying to the International Space Station. This award is given to Dr. Pool for his years of work in support of the space program and in particular, his work in providing medical leadership to the NASA-Mir Program
1998 Valeri V. Polyakov, M.D.
Dr. Polyakov was selected as a cosmonaut-physician in 1972. He served as a crewmember on two Mir flights, the first was 241 days and the second was 438 days in duration. Dr. Polyakov also served as Deputy Director for the Institute for Biomedical Problems. He actively boosted international cooperation and provided medical leadership to the NASA-Mir Program. For his work in support of the Russian space program and in furthering international cooperation, Dr. Polyakov is awarded the Hubertus Strughold Award.
1997 Shannon W. Lucid, Ph.D.
Dr. Lucid was selected as an astronaut in 1978 after receiving her Ph.D. in biochemistry from the University of Oklahoma. She was among the first group of women selected by NASA to become astronauts. A veteran of five space flights, she has logged 5354 hours (223 days) in space. She first flew as a mission specialist on STS-51G in June 1985. She also flew on STS-34 in October 1989 and STS-43 in August 1991. She served as a member of the payload crew on STS-58 Spacelab Life Sciences-2 mission in 1993. During the mission, she performed neurovestibular, cardiovascular, cardiopulmonary, metabolic and musculoskeletal experiments.

Most recently, she served as Board Engineer 2 on Russia’s Space Station Mir launching March 22, 1996 on STS-76 and returning September 26, 1996 aboard STS-79. During her 188 days on Mir she performed numerous life science and physical science experiments. She currently holds the United States single mission space flight endurance record and the record for the most continuous flight hours on orbit by a woman.

For her contributions in furthering the study of space physiology and medicine particularly with regard to long duration space flight, Dr. Lucid is awarded the Hubertus Strughold Award.


PERSONAL DATA: Born January 14, 1943, in Shanghai, China, but considers Bethany, Oklahoma, to be her hometown.  Married to Michael F. Lucid of Indianapolis, Indiana.  They have two daughters and one son, five granddaughters and one grandson.  Shannon enjoys flying, camping, hiking, and reading.   Her parents, Mr. and Mrs. Joseph O. Wells, are deceased.

EDUCATION: Graduated from Bethany High School, Bethany, Oklahoma, in 1960; received a bachelor of science degree in chemistry from the University of Oklahoma in 1963, and master of science and doctor of philosophy degrees in biochemistry from the University of Oklahoma in 1970 and 1973, respectively.

AWARDS: Dr. Lucid is the recipient of numerous awards.

EXPERIENCE: Dr. Lucid’s experience includes a variety of academic assignments, such as teaching assistant at the University of Oklahoma’s Department of Chemistry from 1963 to 1964; senior laboratory technician at the Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation from 1964 to 1966; chemist at Kerr-McGee, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 1966 to 1968; graduate assistant at the University of Oklahoma Health Science Center’s Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology from 1969 to 1973; and research associate with the Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, from 1974 until her selection to the astronaut candidate training program.

Dr. Lucid is a commercial, instrument, and multi-engine rated pilot.

NASA EXPERIENCE: Selected by NASA in January 1978, Dr. Lucid became an astronaut in August 1979.  She is qualified for assignment as a mission specialist on Space Shuttle flight crews.  Some of her technical assignments have included: the Shuttle Avionics Integration Laboratory (SAIL); the Flight Software Laboratory, in Downey, California, working with the rendezvous and proximity operations group; Astronaut Office interface at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, participating in payload testing, Shuttle testing, and launch countdowns; spacecraft communicator (CAPCOM) in the JSC Mission Control Center during numerous Space Shuttle missions; Chief of Mission Support; Chief of Astronaut Appearances.  A veteran of five space flights, Dr. Lucid has logged 5,354 hours (223 days) in space.  She served as a mission specialist on STS-51G (June 17-24, 1985), STS-34 (October 18-23, 1989), STS-43 (August 2-11, 1991), STS-58 (October 18 to November 1, 1993), and as a Board Engineer 2 on Russia’s Space Station Mir (launching March 22, 1996 aboard STS-76 and returning September 26, 1996 aboard STS-79).  Dr. Lucid was the first woman to hold an international record for the most flight hours in orbit by any non-Russian, and until June 2007 she also held the record for the most flight hours in orbit by any woman in the world.  From February 2002 until September 2003, Dr. Lucid served as NASA’s Chief Scientist stationed at NASA Headquarters, Washington D.C., with responsibility for developing and communicating the agency’s science and research objectives to the outside world.  Dr. Lucid has resumed duties at the Johnson Space Center, Houston.

SPACE FLIGHT EXPERIENCE: STS-51G Discovery (June 17-24, 1985) was a 7-day mission during which crew deployed communications satellites for Mexico (Morelos), the Arab League (Arabsat), and the United States (AT&T Telstar).  They used the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) to deploy and later retrieve the SPARTAN satellite, which performed 17 hours of x-ray astronomy experiments while separated from the Space Shuttle.  In addition, the crew activated the Automated Directional Solidification Furnace (ADSF), six Getaway Specials, and participated in biomedical experiments.  The mission was accomplished in 112 orbits of the Earth, traveling 2.5 million miles in 169 hours and 39 minutes.  Landing was at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB), California.

STS-34 Atlantis (October 18-23, 1989) was a 5-day mission during which the deployed the Galileo spacecraft on its journey to explore Jupiter, operated the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet Instrument (SSBUV) to map atmospheric ozone, and performed numerous secondary experiments involving radiation measurements, polymer morphology, lightning research, microgravity effects on plants, and a student experiment on ice crystal growth in space.  The mission was accomplished in 79 orbits of the Earth, traveling 1.8 million miles in 119 hours and 41 minutes.  Landing was at Edwards Air Force Base, California.

STS-43 Atlantis (August 2-11, 1991) was a nine-day mission during which the crew deployed the fifth Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS-E). The crew also conducted 32 physical, material, and life science experiments, mostly relating to the Extended Duration Orbiter and Space Station Freedom.  The mission was accomplished in 142 orbits of the Earth, traveling 3.7 million miles in 213 hours, 21 minutes, 25 seconds.  STS-43 Atlantis was the eighth Space Shuttle to land at KSC).

STS-58 Columbia (October 18 to November 1, 1993).  This record duration fourteen-day mission was recognized by NASA management as the most successful and efficient Spacelab flight flown by NASA.  The STS-58 crew performed neurovestibular, cardiovascular, cardiopulmonary, metabolic, and musculoskeletal medical experiments on themselves and 48 rats, expanding our knowledge of human and animal physiology both on earth and in space flight.  In addition, they performed 16 engineering tests aboard the Orbiter Columbia and 20 Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project experiments.  The mission was accomplished in 225 orbits of the Earth, traveling 5.8 million miles in 336 hours, 13 minutes, 01 seconds.  Landing was at Edwards Air Force Base, California.  In completing this flight Dr. Lucid logged 838 hours, 54 minutes in space .

Dr. Lucid currently holds the United States single mission space flight endurance record on the Russian Space Station Mir. Following a year of training in Star City, Russia, her journey started with liftoff at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on March 22, 1996 aboard STS-76 Atlantis.  Following docking, she transferred to the Mir Space Station.  Assigned as a Board Engineer 2, she performed numerous life science and physical science experiments during the course of her stay aboard Mir.  Her return journey to KSC was made aboard STS-79 Atlantis on September 26, 1996.  In completing this mission Dr. Lucid traveled 75.2 million miles in 188 days, 04 hours, 00 minutes, 14 seconds.

1996 Norman E. Thagard, M.D.
Dr. Thagard was selected as an astronaut in 1978 after receiving his medical degree from the University of Texas Southwestern Medical School in 1997. Designated as a naval aviator in 1968, he also has bachelor and master of science degrees in engineering as well. Dr. Thagard is a veteran of 5 space flights including STS-7, STS-51B, STS-30, STS-42 and most recently Mir 18. Dr. Thagard was the first US astronaut to fly aboard the Russian space station Mir launching from Baikonur in Kazakstan March 14, 1995 and landing at the Kennedy Space Center on July 7, 1995 completing 115 days of space flight. In recognition of his historic mission to Mir and his contributions to furthering the understanding of the effects of long duration space flight, Dr. Thagard is awarded the Hubertus Strughold Award.


PERSONAL DATA: Born July 3, 1943, in Marianna, Florida, but considers Jacksonville, Florida, to be his hometown.  Married to the former Rex Kirby Johnson of South Ponte Vedra Beach, Florida.  They have three sons.  During his free time, he enjoys classical music, and electronic design.  Dr. Thagard has published articles on digital and analog electronic design.  His mother, Mrs. Mary F. Nicholson, is a resident of St. Peterburg, Florida.  His father, Mr. James E. Thagard, is deceased.  Her mother, Mrs. Rex Johnson, resides in Tallahassee, Florida.

EDUCATION: Graduated from Paxon Senior High School, Jacksonville, Florida, in 1961; attended Florida State University where he received bachelor and master of science degrees in engineering science in 1965 and 1966, respectively, and subsequently performed pre-med course work; received a doctor of medicine degree from the University of Texas Southwestern Medical School in 1977.

ORGANIZATIONS: Member, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Aerospace Medical Association, and Phi Kappa Phi.

SPECIAL HONORS: Awarded 11 Air Medals, the Navy Commendation Medal with Combat “V”, the Marine Corps “E” Award, the Vietnam Service Medal, and the Vietnamese Cross of Gallantry with Palm.

EXPERIENCE: Dr. Thagard held a number of research and teaching posts while completing the academic requirements for various earned degrees.

In September 1966, he entered active duty with the United States Marine Corps Reserve.  He achieved the rank of Captain in 1967, was designated a naval aviator in 1968, and was subsequently assigned to duty flying F-4s with VMFA-333 at Marine Corps Air Station, Beaufort, South Carolina.  He flew 163 combat missions in Vietnam while assigned to VMFA-115 from January 1969 to 1970.  He returned to the United States and an assignment as aviation weapons division officer with  VMFA-251 at the Marine Corps Air Station, Beaufort, South Carolina.

Thagard resumed his academic studies in 1971, pursuing additional studies in electrical engineering, and a degree in medicine;  prior to coming to NASA, he was interning in the Department of Internal Medicine at the Medical University of South Carolina.  He is a licensed physician.

He is a pilot and has logged over 2,200 hours flying time–the majority in jet aircraft.

NASA EXPERIENCE: Dr. Thagard was selected as an astronaut candidate by NASA in January 1978.  In August 1979, he completed a one-year training and evaluation period, making him eligible for assignment as a mission specialist on future Space Shuttle flights.  A veteran of five space flights, he has logged over 140 days in space.  He was a mission specialist on on STS-7 in 1983, STS 51-B in 1985, STS-30 in 1989, was the payload commander on STS-42 in 1992, and was the cosmonaut/researcher on the Russian Mir 18 mission in 1995.

Dr. Thagard first flew on the crew of STS-7, which launched from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on June 8, 1983.  This was the second flight for the Orbiter Challenger and the first mission with a crew of five persons.  During the mission, the STS-7 crew deployed satellites for Canada (ANIK C-2) and Indonesia (PALAPA B-1); operated the Canadian-built Remote Manipulator System (RMS) to perform the first deployment and retrieval exercise with the Shuttle Pallet Satellite (SPAS-01); conducted the first formation flying of the Orbiter with a free-flying satellite (SPAS-01); carried and operated the first U.S./German cooperative materials science payload (OSTA-2); and operated the Continuous Flow Electrophoresis System (CFES) and the Monodisperse Latex Reactor (MLR) experiments, in addition to activating seven “Getaway Specials.”  During the flight Dr. Thagard conducted various medical tests and collected data on physiological changes associated with astronaut adaptation to space.  He also retrieved the rotating SPAS-01 using the RMS.  Mission duration was 147 hours before landing at Edwards Air Force Base, California, on June 24, 1983.

Dr. Thagard then flew on STS 51-B, the Spacelab-3 science mission, which launched from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on April 29, 1985, aboard the Challenger.  He assisted the commander and pilot on ascent and entry.  Mission duration was 168 hours.  Duties on orbit included satellite deployment operation with the NUSAT satellite as well as animal care for the 24 rats and two squirrel monkeys contained in the Research Animal Holding Facility (RAHF).  Other duties were operation of the Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (GFFC), Urinary Monitoring System (UMS), and the Ionization States of Solar and Galactic Cosmic Ray Heavy Nuclei (IONS) experiment.  After 110 orbits of the Earth, Challenger landed at Edwards Air Force Base, California, on May 6, 1985.

He next served on the crew of STS-30, which launched from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on May 4, 1989, aboard the Orbiter Atlantis.  During this four-day mission, crew members successfully deployed the Magellan Venus-exploration spacecraft, the first U.S. planetary science mission launched since 1978, and the first planetary probe to be deployed from the Shuttle.  Magellan is scheduled to arrive at Venus in mid-1990 and will map the entire surface of Venus for the first time, using specialized radar instruments.  In addition, crew members also worked on secondary payloads involving fluid research in general, chemistry and electrical storm studies.  Mission duration was 97 hours.  Following 64 orbits of the Earth, the STS-30 mission concluded with a landing at Edwards Air Force Base, California, on May 8, 1989.

Dr. Thagard served as payload commander on STS-42, aboard the Shuttle Discovery, which lifted off from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on January 22, 1992.  Fifty five major experiments conducted in the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 module were provided by investigators from eleven countries, and represented a broad spectrum of scientific disciplines.  During 128 orbits of the Earth, the STS-42 crew accomplished the mission’s primary objective of investigating the effects of microgravity on materials processing and life sciences.  In this unique laboratory in space, crew members worked around-the-clock in two shifts.  Experiments investigated the microgravity effects on the growth of protein and semiconductor crystals.  Biological experiments on the effects of zero gravity on plants, tissues, bacteria, insects and human vestibular response were also conducted.  This eight-day mission culminated in a landing at Edwards Air Force Base, California, on January 30, 1992.

Most recently, Dr. Thagard was the cosmonaut/researcher for the Russian Mir 18 mission.  Twenty eight experiments were conducted in the course of the 115 day flight.  Liftoff was from the BaikonurCosmodrome in Kazakstan on March 14, 1995.  The mission culminated in a landing at the Kennedy Space Center in the Space Shuttle Atlantis on July 7, 1995.

With the completion of his fifth mission, Dr. Thagard has logged over 140 days in space.

Dr. Thagard retired from NASA in December 1995 and returned to his alma mater, Florida State University to take the position of Visiting Professor and Director of External Relations for the Florida A&M University – Florida State University College of Engineering, Tallahassee.

1995 Mary Anne Frey, Ph.D.
Dr. Frey received her Ph.D. in Physiology from George Washington University in 1975. She then performed research at Wright State University in Cardiology, Physiology, Biophysics, and Aerospace Medicine. She subsequently served as Technical Manager, Bionetics Corporation at NASA-KSC, was a visiting NASA scientist at the University Space Research Association, and Manager of the Life Support Department at Lockheed Engineering. She is currently the Program Manager of Life and Biomedical Sciences at NASA HQ in Washington D.C. Dr. Frey is awarded the Hubertus Strughold Award for a distinguished career that was dedicated to research on human cardiovascular responses to the physiological stresses associated with spaceflight and especially the characterization of the cardiovascular and physiological responses for female astronauts.
1994 Emmett B. Ferguson, M.D.
Dr. Ferguson completed medical school at the University of Oklahoma and then a residency in Internal Medicine and Aerospace Medicine. After Serving with the U.S. Air Force Strategic Air Command, he became the Director of Bioastronautics at Cape Canaveral AFB where he supported the Gemini and Apollo spaceflight missions, including management of the medical support stations from Cape Canaveral to the Indian Ocean (Eastern Test Range). He then became the Director of Occupational Medicine at NASA-KSC where he provided important protection for both astronauts and ground crew and researched and applied the principals of circadian function in the operational setting. He personally provided launch site emergency medical support for more than 50 manned launches.
1993 Wyckliffe Hoffler, M.D.
A graduate of the University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Dr. Hoffler joined NASA in 1968 following the completion of his Aerospace Medicine Residency program at Ohio State University. He has served in a number of capacities within the space program including medical officer and subsequently Acting Chief of the Cardiovascular Laboratory at the Johnson Space Center. He then was appointed Chief of the Cardiovascular Physiology Branch. He next served as a medical officer in the Flight Medicine Clinic at the Johnson Space Center prior to becoming the Deputy Director of the Biomedical Office at the Kennedy Space Center in 1977. Dr. Hoffler has been an active member of the Space Medicine Branch since 1970 serving as President in 1986. He has won numerous awards including the Julian E. Ward Award and the Louis H. Bauer Founders Award from the Aerospace Medical Association. He holds 2 U.S. patents and has over 90 abstracts, papers, and presentations to his credit. For his many years of contributions to the field of space medicine, Dr. Hoffler is awarded the Hubertus Strughold Award.
1992 Roberta Bondar, M.D., Ph.D.
Dr. Roberta Bondar received her Ph.D. from the University of Toronto in 1974 and her M.D. from McMaster University in 1997. She was a Canadian astronaut on STS-42 in 1992 where she conducted experiments as a Payload Specialist on the International Microgravity Laboratory Mission (IML-1) in the Spacelab module. She was the first Canadian female astronaut and the first neurobiologist to fly into space.
1991 Stanley R. Mohler, M.D.
Stanley R. Mohler graduated with an M.D. from the University of Texas Medical Branch in 1956 and received a masters degree from UTMB. He is certified in Preventive Medicine/Aerospace Medicine. He performed post-graduate clinical training at the US Public Health Service Hospital, San Francisco, and then four years as a Public Health Service officer at the Center for Aging Research, National Institutes of Health. This experience was followed by 17 years in the Federal Aviation Administration, initially as Director of the FAA Civil Aeromedical Research Institute and then as Chief of the FAA Aeromedical Applications Division.

Dr. Mohler was the founding Director of the Aerospace Medicine Residency Program at Wright State University School of Medicine in 1978. Graduates of the program include over 100 civilian and military physicians. These can be found working within NASA, the FAA, the airlines, branches of the uniformed services, medical school faculties, and in the private practice of aerospace medicine.

He served as the President of the Aerospace Medical Association in 1983. His research has focused on pilot aging, performance and health aspects, fatigue, pilot medical certification aspects, medication and alcohol effects on pilot performance, airplane passenger health, and aviation accident causes. He also published on key historical topics in aviation and space that have human factors and aeromedical underpinnings.

1990 Joan Vernikkos, Ph.D
Dr. Joan Vernikos was a Project Scientist (1966–1993) and then the Director of Life Sciences (1993-2000) at the NASA Ames Research Center. She has published over 200 papers and holds the patent for the Human Powered Centrifuge.
1988 Anatoly Ivanivich Grigoriev, M.D., Ph.D.
Dr. Grigoriev is the Director of the Institute of Biomedical Problems in Moscow, Russia since 1988. He was born on March 23, 1943 in the Zhitomir region, Ukraine. In 1966 he graduated with his M.D. from the 2nd Moscow Medical Institute. In obtained his PhD from the Institute of Biomedical Problems in 1970 under the mentorship of Dr. V.V. Parin. Dr. Grigoriev was one of the founders of gravitational physiology and made a major contribution to fundamental and applied problems of space biology and medicine that led to the possibility of the long duration space flight to the Soviet space stations. From 1988 to 2008, Dr. Grigoriev supervised medical support of space flight aboard the Russia “Mir” orbital station and then the International Space Station. Since 1991 he was the Chairman of the Chief Medical Commission, and since 2000 he served as the Chief Medical Officer of the Russian Space Agency. Under the direction of Dr. Grigoriev, a program was implemented to study the cardiovascular system and metabolism during long-duration space flight, to characterize previously unknown mechanisms of endocrine regulation of metabolism in microgravity. Dr. Grigoriev was also involved in the development of the telemedicine system for the International Space Station. He has authored or coauthored more than 300 scientific publications, including 12 monographs and 16 book chapters; he is the author of more than 20 patents.


Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences – RAS (1997) and Russian Academy of Medical Sciences (1993), a member of the Presidium of RAS (2001 –present), Academician-Secretary (2002), Acting Academician-Secretary (until May 2009.) of the RAS Department of Biological Sciences, Vice-President of RAS (2008), Honored Scientist of Russia (1996), doctor of medical sciences, professor.

A. Grigoriev was born March 23, 1943 in Zhitomir region, Ukraine. In 1966 he graduated from the 2nd Moscow Medical Institute named after Pirogov, specialty – physician in medical practice. In the same year he entered the PhD program of the Institute of Biomedical Problems. Successfully completing his graduate program under the mentorship of Academician V.V. Parin, A. Grigoriev in 1970 defended his Ph.D., in 1980 – his doctoral thesis. Anatoly consistently rose from research assistant to the head of the Laboratory (since 1978), head of the department (since 1980) Deputy Director (since 1983) to the Director of the Institute (since 1988), Scientific Director of the Institute (since October 2008.)

  1. Grigoriev is one of the founders of gravitational physiology. His main research interests are focused on studying the patterns of change and adaptation mechanisms of the various functional systems of humans and animals when exposed to extreme environmental factors, including the factors of space flight. A. Grigoriev made a major contribution to fundamental and applied problems of space biology and medicine that led to the possibility of the longest in the world of space manned missions to the orbiting space stations.A.I. Grigoriev’s major scientific achievements of general theoretical significance include characterization of changes in sensitivity of organs and systems to the biologically active substances in microgravity, the definition of the role of changes in water-salt metabolism in the development of vestibular disorders, postural instability and reduced tolerance of acceleration, the elucidation of mechanisms of restructuring of systems of transport of water and ions in the kidney, the establishment of the features of calcium-phosphorus metabolism and bone status during weightlessness, physiological mechanisms of the humoral regulation of metabolism in microgravity.Conducting research with the astronauts, he began to apply the load test, and then – more complex, radionuclide methods for studying metabolism. One of the first in our country, he began using water and “dry” immersion to simulate the effects of weightlessness. Study of mechanisms of adjustment kidney function, fluid and electrolyte metabolism and its hormonal regulation in model experiments in weightlessness allowed AI Grigoriev and staff, using the methods of pharmacological and metabolic correction, to develop an effective system to prevent adverse changes in the body in microgravity.In numerous studies on hypokinesia conducted under the direction of AI Grigoriev, new data were obtained on the effect of hypokinesia on the human body that led to development of promising approaches to the treatment of metabolic disorders, osteoporosis, correction of motor and cardiovascular disorders, and to prophylactic measures against the adverse impact of reduced physical activity of the human organism. From 1988 to 2008 A. Grigoriev supervised medical support of space flight aboard the Russia “Mir” orbital station and the International Space Station. Since 1991 he was the Chairman of the Chief Medical Commission, and since 2000 he served as the Chief Medical Officer of the Russian Space Agency.A. Grigoriev – Vice-Chairman of the Coordinating Council of Science and Technology of the Russian Aviation and Space Agency and the Academy of Sciences, chairman of the section “Space Biology and Physiology” of the Space Council of Sciences and chairman of the Space Medicine section of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences.

    Under the leadership of AI Grigoriev, unique terrestrial simulation experiments were conducted that validated and put into practice methods of space flight medical monitoring, prediction and control of all human activities, to create a set of tools and methods for prevention of adverse effects of microgravity, which contributed to the implementation of long-term (up to a year) orbital flights. For these studies, AI Grigoriev was awarded the 1989 USSR State Prize.

    Under the direction of AI Grigoriev, a program was implemented to study the cardiovascular system and metabolism during long-duration space flight, to characterize previously unknown mechanisms of endocrine regulation of metabolism in microgravity. For a series of studies on the physiology of the cardiovascular system in space flight and hypokinesia AI Grigoriev was twice awarded the Academician VV Parin Prize (1996, 2003).

    In 1996, AI Grigor’ev with co-authors was awarded the Prize of the Russian Government for participation in animal studies in flying unmanned “BION” (1973 – 1993) biosatellites and their use in theory and practice of space medicine. In these studies, the process of adaptation of living systems of different evolutionary levels (from insects to primates) to the influence of gravity was thoroughly studied to validate the absence of fundamental biological limitations on the consistent increase in the duration of manned space missions. This work led to development of the strategy for human exploration of outer space, and laid the foundation for the formation of new scientific discipline – Gravitational Physiology.

    In 2002, A. Grigoriev, together with a team of scientists has been awarded the State Prize of Russia for a comprehensive scientific work, “Motion Control in Sensory Disorders in microgravity and Information Support of Visual Stabilization of Space Objects.” The work shed light on the basic mechanisms of adaptation of complex disorders of inter-sensory interactions during space flight and space flight simulations, and identified ways of their correction and the method of visual quality control in space flight.

    Under the guidance of AI Grigoriev, the unique experience accumulated by the Institute of Biomedical Problems (IBMP) during space exploration allowed to develop a number of important areas not directly associated with space flight. This applies in particular to research into extreme and Hyperbaric Medicine. For the development and introduction of means and methods of life support and human safety in isolated ecosystems with modified atmospheres and study the physiological effect of inert gases, AI Grigoriev together with a team of employees in 2003 was awarded the Prize of the Russian Government.

    AI Grigoriev’s work was crucial to the establishment of domestic telemedicine systems. With his participation, networks for telemedicine infrastructure were tested for medical support of space flight and then implemented in the health care systems of the country. Dr. Grigoriev was also involved in the development of the telemedicine system for the International Space Station.

    AI Grigoriev’s works address many theoretical issues of medicine, in particular the problems of medical standards and latent disease. Investigation of this complex problem was based on the extensive experience of IBMP in evaluations of healthy people, including candidates for cosmonauts, astronauts, aquanauts, rescue workers, pilots, athletes, and test subjects.

    A. Grigoriev pays great attention to the introduction of space medicine expertise in public health practice, including rehabilitation. In the group of authors, he has developed and implemented a method of dynamic proprioceptive correction in the rehabilitation of neurological patients. The method is protected by patents and is widely used in dozens of national medical centers, particularly in the treatment of cerebral palsy and other neurological diseases. This method is implemented to create therapeutic loading costumes, “Adele” and “Regent”, multi-frequency muscle stimulator “Miostim” and the mechanical stimulus receptors of the foot “Peony.”

    Results of integrated studies of the state of bone in space flight crewmembers, test subjects and patients with osteoporosis, conducted under the direction of AI Grigoriev, included assessment of metabolism and architecture of bone tissue and led to new approaches to the early diagnosis of osteoporosis.

    In 1996 A. I. Grigoriev established the Department of Environmental and Extreme Medicine of the Faculty of Basic Medicine, Moscow State University, and continues to teach there. His lectures include “Space Biology and Medicine”, “Ecological physiology and medicine” and “Telemedicine.” As the head of a leading scientific school of space biology and medicine, he has mentored over 30 successful Ph.D. and D.Sc. degree candidates in the field of space physiology and extreme medicine.

    From 2003 to present AI Grigoriev is the coordinator of the RAS “Fundamental sciences – medicine” program. Since 2004 he is a member of the Presidential Council for Science, Technology and Education.
    A. Grigoriev is the chairman of the Council of Scientific Publishing at the Academy of Sciences (since 2007). He is the Editor-in- Chief of “Human Physiology”, “Technologies of living systems”, “Aerospace and Environmental Medicine” (1989 – 2009.), and a member of editorial boards of several national and international journals.

    AI Grigoriev actively participates in international cooperation in the field of space medicine and biology. He plays major roles in the cooperation of Russian scientists with colleagues in the United States, France and other countries of the European Space Agency. A. Grigoriev co-Chairs the international Lspace Station Multilateral Medical Policy Board since 2000. AI Grigor’ev’s scientific and organizational activities have earned appreciation of the international scientific community, as evidenced by his service as vice-president of the International Academy of Astronautics (1993-2003) and Vice-President of the International Astronautical Federation (2004-2008); he hold the degree of Doctor Honoris causa of the University of Lyon (France).

    A. Grigoriev was awarded many orders and medals of Russia and foreign countries. In recent years, he was awarded the Order of Merit for the Fatherland IV and III degree (2003, 2008), the title of an officer of the Order of the Legion of Honour of France (2004), “The Big Badge of Merit of the Federal Republic of Austria, the Order of Dostyk (Friendship), Kazakhstan, the Lomonosov Order, the “Triumph” prize for his achievements in the field of medicine (2006), the Demidov Prize for Achievement in the Life Sciences (2008), Ukhtomsky Prize (2009), the Medal of N. V.Timofeev-Ressovsky, Academician VF Utkin Gold Medal. Academician Vavilov (2008) and Pirogov (2008) medals, and others. He has authored or coauthored more than 300 scientific publications, including 12 monographs and 16 book chapters; he is the author of more than 20 patents.

1984 Arnauld E.T. Nicogossian, M.D.
Dr. Nicoggossian was the lead flight surgeon for the Apollo- Soyuz Test Project where he performed ground breaking, pathfinding activities to implement the first joint U.S.- Soviet space flight. Dr. Nicoggossian received his M.D. from Tehran University in Iran and completed a residency in Internal Medicine and a fellowship in Pulmonary medicine at Mt. Sinai Hospital in New York. He also has a masters degree from Ohio State UNiversity. His fluency in Russian was crirtical during the planning, training and performance of the Apollo-Soyuz mission. His pulmonary training also became critical inadvertently when the U.S. astronauts experienced toxic respiratory exposure to nitrogen tetraoxide during re-entry.
1983 Sherman P. Vinograd
Dr. Sherman P. Vinograd fulfilled the roles of Chief of Medical Science and Technology and Director of Biomedical Research at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) from the fall of 1961 until the spring of 1979. In this role he shaped, organized, and directed NASA’s program of medical research as a funded program of studies, which was carried out in not only NASA Center laboratories, but also in university, industry, and other government laboratories and hospitals all over the country. It produced a large substrate of information through its bed rest studies, vestibular, bone, neuromuscular, hematology, and cardiovascular researches. It also produced valuable fall-out, such as an accurate bone density measurement technique which is now in common clinical use.
His major activities during this career were conceptualizing, establishing, and chairing the Space Medicine Advisory Group (SPAMAG) charged with defining the earth-based and space-based research and life-support requirements for a manned orbiting research laboratory. This Group designed a carefully planned study utilizing highly qualified, specialized members of the scientific community. They postulated a non-existent orbiting laboratory to be designed according to the needs of future human flight crews and requirements for human spaceflight information. This would result in the creation of Skylab.

He was also responsible for establishing the In-flight Medical Experiments Program in preparation for the Apollo series of manned space flights. This program was a series of carefully designed flight crew studies derived from proposals by qualified scientists both from within and outside NASA to evaluate human responses to spaceflight.
In addition, Dr. Vinograd developed a supportive Research and Development Program necessary to provide pertinent ground-based data and to advance state-of-the-art medical measurement technology, a major development of which was the Integrated Medical and Behavioral Laboratory measurement System (IMBLMS). This consisted of medical experiments and accompanying equipment necessary to perform them that was used from the Gemini through the Skylab manned space flight programs. Carried aboard virtually any post-Apollo space vehicle by virtue of its rack and module design, these designs were used well into the future. He also fostered the continuing ground-based medical research program sponsored and/or conducted by NASA.

1982 Sidney D. Leverett, Jr., Ph.D.
Dr. Leveret received the Hubertus Strughold award in recognition of his scientific and professional achievements in altitude physiology, acceleration physiology, and in the development of aircrew protective devices. He was also the current editor of the Journal of Aviation Medicine. He worked at the Air Research and Development Command, the Aero Medical Laboratory, and the USAF School of Aerospace Medicine where he conducted research on Centrifuge studies and anti-G suits.
1975 Lawrence F. Dietlein, M.D., Ph.D.
Dr. Dietlein is the Deputy Director of Life Sciences at NASA Johnson Space Center where he has full responsibility for the direction of the applied medical research program. He has contributed significantly to the planning , integration, and implementation of these programs to assure the well being of the astronauts during space flight and extravehicular activity. He received his bachelor of science degree in premedicine from Louisianna STate University in 1948, his master of arts in 1949, his Ph.D. from Baylor in 1951, and his M.D. from Harvard in 1955. In 1962, Dr. Dietlein joined NASA Johnson Space Center and became immediately responsible for establishing a medical research program to gain new physiological and medical data on the possible detrimental alterations in astronaut physiology during manned space flight. He established a vigourous program of in-flight research to verify ground-based findings and to obtain data to explain post-flight observations. In 1966, with the organization of the Apollo Applications Program (later called Skylab), Dr.Dietlein initiated a procedure to consolidate the proposed list of Skylab medical and physiological research into four principle categories – cardiovascular/renal/endocrine, musculoskeletal/mineral metabolism, neurological, and respiratory/gaseous metabolism. He stressed concern for accuracy, validity and appropriateness of all measurement techniques. These extensive in-flight studies produced vast amounts of new data on the effects of weightlessness on man.
1974 Cdr. Joseph P. Kerwin, M.D.
Dr. Kerwin was selected as a scientist-astronaut by NASA in 1965 and was the first U.S. physician to fly into space on the 28-day Skylab 2 mission in 1973. He received his M.D. from Northwestern University Medical School in 1957 and was a U.S. Navy flight surgeon prior to NASA selection. He was responsible for the first long duration biomedical research to be conducted from this first U.S. space station mission.


PERSONAL DATA: Born February 19, 1932, in Oak Park, Illinois.
Married to the former Shirley Ann Good of Danville, Pennsylvania. They
have three daughters, and three grandchildren. His hobbies are reading
and classical music.

EDUCATION: Graduated from Fenwick High School, Oak Park,
Illinois, in 1949; received a bachelor of arts degree in Philosophy from
College of the Holy Cross, Worcester, Massachusetts, in 1953; a doctor
of Medicine degree from Northwestern University Medical School,
Chicago, Illinois, in 1957; completed internship at the District of
Columbia General Hospital in Washington, D.C.; and attended the U.S.
Navy School of Aviation Medicine at Pensacola, Florida, being
designated a naval flight surgeon in December 1958.

ORGANIZATIONS: Fellow of the Aerospace Medical Association; member of the Aircraft Owners and
Pilots Association.

EXPERIENCE: Kerwin, a Captain, has been in the Navy Medical Corps since July 1958. He earned his
wings at Beeville, Texas, in 1962. He has logged 4,500 hours flying time.

NASA EXPERIENCE: Captain Kerwin was selected as a scientist-astronaut by NASA in June 1965.
Kerwin served as science-pilot for the Skylab 2 (SL-2) mission which launched on May 25 and terminated onJune 22, 1973. With him for the initial activation and 28-day flight qualification operations of the Skylab
orbital workshop were Charles Conrad, Jr., (spacecraft commander) and Paul J. Weitz (pilot).
Kerwin was subsequently in charge of the on-orbit branch of the Astronaut Office, where he coordinated
astronaut activity involving rendezvous, satellite deployment and retrieval, and other Shuttle payload
operations. From 1982-1983, Kerwin served as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s senior science representative in Australia. In this capacity, he served as liaison between NASA’s Office of Space Tracking and Data Systems and Australia’s Department of Science and Technology. From 1984-1987, he served as Director, Space and Life Sciences, Johnson Space Center. Kerwin was responsible for direction and coordination of medical support to operational manned spacecraft programs, including health care and maintenance of the astronauts and their families; for direction of life services, supporting research and light experiment project; and for managing JSC earth sciences and scientific efforts in lunar and planetary research. He retired from the Navy, left NASA and joined Lockheed in 1987. At Lockheed he managed the Extravehicular Systems Project, providing hardware for Space Station Freedom, from 1988 to 1990; with two other Lockheed employees he invented the Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER), recently tested for use by space walking astronauts on the International Space Station (ISS). He then served on the Assured Crew Return Vehicle team, and served as Study Manager on the Human Transportation Study, a NASA review of future space transportation architectures. In 1994-95 he led the Houston liaison group for Lockheed Martin’s FGB contract, the procurement of the Russian “space tug” which has become the first element of the ISS. He served on the NASA Advisory Council from 1990 to 1993.

He joined Systems Research Laboratories (SRL) in June, 1996, to serve as Program Manager of the SRL
team which bid to win the Medical Support and Integration Contract at the Johnson Space Center. The
incumbent, KRUG Life Sciences, was selected. Then, to his surprise, KRUG recruited him to replace its
retiring President, T. Wayne Holt. He joined KRUG on April 1, 1997. On March 16, 1998, KRUG Life Sciences became the Life Sciences Special Business Unit of Wyle Laboratories of El Segundo, California.
In addition to his duties at Wyle, he serves on the Board of Directors of the National Space Biomedical
Research Institute (NSBRI) as an Industry representative.

1969 Stanley C. White, MD
One of the pioneers in aviation and aerospace medicine, Dr. White was a part of the space program from its inception. A graduate of the University of Cincinnati Medical School, he completed his residency at the USAF School of Aerospace Medicine in 1952. Moving back and forth between the USAF (Surgeon General’s office for TAC, Aeromedical Research Laboratory Respiratory Section Chief, Directory for Bioastronautics and Systems Support, Assistant Deputy for R&D of Aeropspace Medical Division, Assistant to the Director for USAF Manned Orbiting Laboratory Program, and Staff Manager Biomedical Research program at Air Force Systems Command) and NASA (Advisor for Life Sciences to Director of NASA Space Task Group, Chief of Life Sciences Branch, and Chief of Crew Systems Division), Dr. White was engaged in the selection process of the first astronauts for the manned space flight program, and was intimately involved in determining and designing the systems needed to maintain humans during and after their sojourn in space. For his significant contributions to allowing man to achieve space flight, Dr. White was awarded the Hubertus Strughold award.
1967 Charles A. Berry, M.D.
Dr. Berry has been part of the space program since its inception. A graduate of the University of California Medical School at San Francisco, he completed his Aerospace Medicine residency at the USAF School of Aerospace Medicine in 1952. While practicing aerospace medicine with the USAF, he became involved with the selection of the first astronauts. He joined NASA in 1961 as the Chief of the Medical Operations Office at the Manned Spacecraft Center. He then was appointed to his current position as the Director of Medical Research and Operations in 1962. He has been active in the Space Medicine Branch serving as President 1965-66. For his significant contributions to the fledgling field of space medicine, Dr. Berry is awarded the Hubertus Strughold Award.
1966 Hermann Schaefer, Ph.D.
Dr. Schaefer is the Head, Biophysics Dept, U.S. Naval Aerospace Medical Institute. He received his Ph.D. degree in 1929 from the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University in Frankfort, Germany. He came to the U.S. in 1948, joining the staff of the School of Aviation Medicine, Pensacola (later changed to the Naval Aerospace Medical Institute) where he has remained, performing outstanding research in the field of bioclimatology, radiobiology, biophysics, bioastronautics and cosmic radiation. He is known as the outstanding authority on the radiation aspects of space medicine. He was one of the charter members of the Space Medicine Branch in 1951.

Strughold-Awards-2016 (141.5 KiB)

Strughold Accomplishments (1.9 MiB)

Wall Street Journal Article Nov 30 2012 (646.0 KiB)

Strughold (154.0 KiB)

Strughold Header (21.4 KiB)

Figure 1 (1.1 MiB)

Figure 3 (129.4 KiB)

Figure 4 (36.0 KiB)

Strughold Award (25.7 KiB)

Appendix 1 - Hypoxia (1.3 MiB)

Appendix 4 - Children Hypoxia (56.6 KiB)

Figure 2 (56.2 KiB)

Appendix 2 - Hypothermia (104.5 KiB)

Appendix 3 - Salt Water (50.0 KiB)



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