Commercial Space Flight

Space Medicine Association:
Section on Commercial Human Spaceflight

Beginning in the 1980s, NASA began seeking ways to shift routine space operations to the commercial sector. The retirement of the shuttle program in 2004 accelerated the need for private sector partnerships and saw the emergence of new spaceflight operators. Numerous operators have established themselves as important elements in the transportation of both crew and cargo into low earth orbit. In addition, a nascent space tourism industry has emerged and is focused on enabling broader public access to spaceflight that had previously been limited to career astronauts and extremely wealthy individuals traveling as tourists aboard the Space Shuttle and the Soyuz. With the anticipated growth of commercial human spaceflight and space tourism, there will inevitably arise novel aeromedical challenges with regards to the health and safety of crews and passengers. This section is intended to provide a concise summary of the objectives, proposed flight profiles and vehicles, and anticipated aeromedical challenges that will be faced by commercial operators. The commercial spaceflight sector is a dynamic and ever-evolving industry. Therefore we have also included helpful links to websites with more detailed information beyond the scope of this text as well as real time updates via twitter feeds on the most recent events in the field.


SpaceX

“SpaceX was founded under the belief that a future where humanity is out exploring the stars is fundamentally more exciting than one where we are not.”
Operating Principle: “Manufacture and launch rockets and spacecraft…with the ultimate goal of enabling people to live on other planets”

Current vehicles: Falcon 9 (rocket), Falcon 9 Heavy (rocket), Dragon (cargo capsule), and Grasshopper (reusable rocket; in testing)

Current Destinations: Low-earth orbit, geo-synchronous transfer orbit
[accordions ] [accordion title=”Read More about Space X” load=”hide”]Space Exploration Technologies Corporation, or SpaceX, (www.spacex.com), established in 2002 by former PayPal founder Elon Musk, is focused on development and production of reusable launch vehicles to reduce launch costs and enable cheaper access to space. SpaceX is one of two companies currently contracting with NASA through the Commercial Resupply Services contract. The Falcon 9 rocket with 9 Merlin 1 engines is SpaceX’s primary launch vehicle and has delivered cargo to the International Space Station via the Dragon capsule. SpaceX recently unveiled Dragon v2, its first-generation crew capsule intended to transport NASA astronauts to low earth orbit.
SpaceX Dragon V2
Inaugural Launch Date 2016
Acceleration Profile In development/testing
Passenger capacity 7 crew members
Life Support System In development
Crew Worn Equipment In development
Destinations LEO, capability exists to land on Moon and Mars

Reusable Yes
EXPECTED AEROMEDICAL CHALLENGES:
1) Developing human-rated cargo capsule with sufficient redundancy and safety mechanisms to meet NASA standards
2) Development of crew spacesuits versus adoption of current design
VIDEOS:
1) DragonV2 unveiling: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yEQrmDoIRO8
2) SuperDraco Qualification Testing: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lIGVi_rMFGw
3) Vimeo: http://vimeo.com/spacexlaunch
4) Youtube: www.youtube.com/user/spacexchannel
— USEFUL LINKS:
1) Spacex: www.spacex.com
2) Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dragon_V2
SOCIAL MEDIA:
1) Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/SpaceX
2) Twitter: https://twitter.com/SpaceX
3) Google+: https://plus.google.com/+SpaceX
CAREER OPPORTUNITIES:
1) SpaceX Careers: http://www.spacex.com/careers
2) LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/company/spacex
Additional considerations:
– Live twitter feed
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Orbital Sciences

Operating Principle: “Orbital’s fundamental purpose has been to create outstanding value for our customers by providing innovative, reliable, and affordable space and launch systems that enable or enhance commercial, civil government and defense operations.”

Current vehicles: Pegasus (rocket), Minotaur (rocket), Cygnus (cargo capsule)

Current Destinations: Low-earth orbit
[accordions ] [accordion title=”Read More about Orbital Sciences” load=”hide”]Orbital Sciences Corporation founded in 1982, was one the first commercial enterprises to build and launch its own rockets. Since its inception, OSC has grown tremendously providing space and launch capabilities for the commercial, government and defense sectors. Traditionally, Orbital Sciences has focused on small and medium payload launches. However, with the development of its Antares rocket and Cygnus cargo capsule, Orbital Sciences earned NASA’s Commercial Resupply Services contract and has begun delivering cargo to the ISS. Orbital Sciences has plans to refit its Cygnus capsule to enable it to carry 3 to 4 crew with an anticipated launch date sometime in 2016. In addition, it recently released a proposal for the Exploration Augmentation Module (EAM), a reconfigured Cygnus module which would attach to NASA’s Orion multi-purpose crew vehicle and provide additional habitation capabilities, thereby enabling NASA to pursue more distant space destinations.
Taurus-2 Cygnus-based astronaut crew capsule Exploration Augmentation Module
Inaugural Launch Date 2016 TBD
Acceleration Profile In development/testing None; boarded in orbit
Passenger capacity 3-4 crew members 3-4 crew members
Life Support System TBD Life support, waste management, thermal control
Crew Worn Equipment TBD None
Destinations LEO CIS-lunar, high-altitude earth orbit
Reusable TBD TBD

EXPECTED AEROMEDICAL CHALLENGES:
1) Developing human-rated cargo capsule with sufficient redundancy and safety mechanisms to meet NASA standards
2) Development of crew spacesuits versus adoption of current design
NEWS:
1) http://www.spaceflightinsider.com/missions/commercial-space-space-flight-missions/orbital/orbital-proposes-future-deep-space-applications-cygnus/
2) http://spaceports.blogspot.com/2009/09/orbital-plans-to-develop-cygnus-based.html
VIDEOS:
1) Vimeo: vimeo.com/tag:orbitalsciences
2) Youtube: www.youtube.com/user/OrbitalSci
— USEFUL LINKS:
1) Orbital Sciences Corporation: https://www.orbital.com/
2) Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orbital_Sciences_Corporation
SOCIAL MEDIA:
1) Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/OrbitalSciencesCorp
2) Twitter: https://twitter.com/OrbitalSciences
CAREER OPPORTUNITIES:
1) https://www.orbital.com/Careers/
2) https://www.linkedin.com/company/orbital-sciences-corporation
Additional considerations: Live twitter feed
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BOEING

Operating Principle: To build and launch a commercial space transportation vehicle that is reusable, adaptable with multiple launch platforms, and can meet the needs of both commercial and government clients to provide transportation to the ISS and future private space stations

Current vehicle(s): Commercial Space Transportation 100 vehicle (human-rated capsule), or in the words of one journalist, a “private space taxi”

Current Destinations: Low-earth orbit
[accordions ] [accordion title=”Read More about Boeing” load=”hide”]Boeing in collaboration with Bigelow Aerospace and funded in part by NASA’s Commercial Crew Development and Commercial Crew Integrated Capability programs is developing the commercial space transportation (CST) 100 vehicle. The figure below highlights the planned life-cycle for the CST-100. The vehicle is unique in that it is being built to be compatible with multiple launch platforms including the United Launch Alliances Atlas V rocket, the Delta IV rocket, and SpaceX’s Falcon 9. It is set to launch crew or any paying passenger to the ISS and other low earth orbit destinations beginning in 2017. One important limitation of the CST-100 is that it is intended as primarily a shuttle or “space taxi” to lower earth orbit and is not, as of now, capable of transporting crew to more distant destinations.
CST-100
Inaugural Launch Date 2017
Acceleration Profile In development/testing
Passenger capacity 7 crew members
Life Support System TBD
Crew Worn Equipment TBD
Destinations LEO – ISS, other LEO destinations
Reusable Yes up to 10 times
EXPECTED AEROMEDICAL CHALLENGES:
3) Developing human-rated cargo capsule with sufficient redundancy and safety mechanisms to meet NASA standards
4) Development of crew spacesuits versus adoption of current design
VIDEOS:
3) Vimeo: vimeo.com/tag:boeing
4) Youtube
a. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6VYIUi9H3vM&list=PL2jATyVdY-7EXxvWX1KdI60Eb1IWKFArf
b. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VdQfdKkr46U
c. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TlJBdY2rXY0
d. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lTh_whMgDwc
NEWS:
1) http://www.beyondearth.com/news?filter=Commercial_Crew_Transportation_System
2) http://www.universetoday.com/103660/spacesuited-astronauts-climb-aboard-boeing-cst-100-commercial-crew-capsule/
— USEFUL LINKS:
1) Boeing Beyond Earth: http://www.beyondearth.com/space-systems/commercial-crew-transportation-system
2) Boeing Commercial Crew: http://www.boeing.com/boeing/defense-space/space/ccts/index.page?
3) Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CST-100
SOCIAL MEDIA:
1) Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/pages/CST-100/139067012787991
2) Twitter: https://twitter.com/BoeingDefense
CAREER OPPORTUNITIES:
1) http://www.boeing.com/boeing/careers/index.page?
2) https://www.linkedin.com/company/boeing
Additional considerations:
– Live twitter feed
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Virgin Galactic

Operating Principle: Virgin Galactic seeks to open up sub-orbital spaceflight to the masses by combining advanced carbon composite technologies with a unique horizontal launch profile and hybrid rocket engine, glider vehicle. This approach has produced a reusable spacecraft that is unique in its ability to conduct multiple flights within the same day thereby dramatically cutting costs.

Current vehicles: SpaceShipTwo (passenger vehicle) and VirginMotherShipEve (dual fuselage plane/carrier vehicle)

Current Destinations: Sub-orbital parabolic trajectories
[accordions ] [accordion title=”Read More about Virgin Galactic” load=”hide”]Virgin Galactic, founded by Sir Richard Branson, arose out of the acquisition of the SpaceShipOne concept vehicle, winner of the Ansari X prize in 2004 and developed by Burt Rutan. Working with Scaled Composites, Virgin Galactic has developed further developed the SpaceShipOne concept to produce and launch SpaceShipTwo (SS2). SS2 utilizes a unique horizontal launch profile which is shown in the diagram above. SS2 carries up to 6 passengers and two crew and utilizes a hybrid rocket engine for ascent and a unique glider mechanism on descent. It is carried to an altitude of 50,000 feet by a highly modified, all carbon-fiber, dual fuselage airplane, the VirginMotherShip Eve, where it free falls for 5 seconds before igniting its hybrid engines. After reaching a maximum altitude of 360,000 feet, SpaceShipTwo deploys its unique feathering wings to maintain stability as it glides back to Spaceport America. This unique flight profile will enable VG to conduct multiple flights per day if needed. In addition, VG has constructed one of the first fully commercial spaceports, called Spaceport America in New Mexico that will service its fleet of aircraft and spacecraft. VG’s mission to open up spaceflight to the masses poses unique aeromedical challenges that will require dedicated research and clinical efforts to help establish best-practice guidelines to ensure the safety of passengers and minimize the risk of in-flight events.
SpaceShipTwo
Inaugural Launch Date 2014
Acceleration Profile Max Gx 6.0, Max Gz 3.8
Passenger capacity 6 passengers, 2 crewmembers
Life Support System None, shirt-sleeve
Crew Worn Equipment TBD
Destinations Sub-orbital, parabolic profile
Reusable Yes, multiple flights daily

EXPECTED AEROMEDICAL CHALLENGES:
1) Developing medical standards, determining risk profiles, and establishing best practices to minimize in-flight and-post flight events amongst passengers with underlying chronic illnesses such as CAD, diabetes, heart failure, etc.
2) Developing safety standards for commercial crew with regards to total radiation exposure and flight hours per day/week/month
VIDEOS:
1) Virgin Galactic: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1Tc_vlQSKpM
2) Vimeo: http://vimeo.com/search?q=virgin+galactic
3) Youtube: www.youtube.com/user/virgingalactic
NEWS:
1) http://www.parabolicarc.com/2014/08/17/branson-reiterates-plan-fly-year/
— USEFUL LINKS:
1) Virgin Galactic: http://www.virgingalactic.com
2) Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virgin_Galactic
SOCIAL MEDIA:
1) Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/virgingalactic
2) Twitter: https://twitter.com/virgingalactic
3) Google+: https://plus.google.com/+VirginGalactic

CAREER OPPORTUNITIES:
1) http://www.virgingalactic.com/careers/
2) https://www.linkedin.com/company/virgin-galactic

Additional considerations: Live twitter feed
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Sierra Nevada

Operating Principle: Develop high capacity, reusable, low-impact horizontal landing spacecraft that can be launched on existing rocket technology and carry astronauts safely to and from the ISS and deliver sensitive scientific payloads to orbit

Current vehicles: Dream Chaser

Current Destinations: Low-earth Orbit
[accordions ] [accordion title=”Read More about Sierra Nevada” load=”hide”]Sierra Nevada’s Dream Chaser is part of its eclectic portfolio of space-systems products. It has developed the Dream Chaser in part through funding from NASA’s Commercial Crew Development program and Commercial Crew Integrated Capability contracts. The Dream Chaser at first glance looks like a miniature version of the Space Shuttle and is in fact derived from NASA’s HL-20 prototype. Like the shuttle it can carry up to 7 crew, is a vertical take-off and horizontal landing vehicle, and should be able to dock with the ISS. It is to be launched on the United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket. Unlike the shuttle, the Dream Chaser has been designed to be low-maintenance enabling quick turn-around, has a large cross-range with frequent landing opportunities and utilizes non-toxic propulsion systems to reduce risks to crew in case of contingency. Sierra Nevada failed to secure the most recent round NASA Commercial Crew Program awards, so it remains unclear what its future holds.
Dream Chaser
Inaugural Launch Date 2016-2017
Acceleration Profile Similar to Soyuz on take-off, 1.5 Gz on landing
Passenger capacity 7 crew
Life Support System Pressurized cabin
Crew Worn Equipment TBD
Destinations Low-Earth Orbit
Reusable Yes
EXPECTED AEROMEDICAL CHALLENGES:
1) Developing medical standards, determining risk profiles, and establishing best practices to minimize in-flight and-post flight events amongst passengers with underlying chronic illnesses such as CAD, diabetes, heart failure, etc.
2) Developing safety standards for commercial crew with regards to total radiation exposure and flight hours per day/week/month
VIDEOS:
1) YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/user/SNCspacesystems
2) Vimeo: http://vimeo.com/search?q=virgin+galactic
NEWS:
— USEFUL LINKS:
1) Sierra Nevada Corporation: http://www.sncspace.com/ss_space_exploration.php
2) Wikipedia: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sierra_Nevada_Corporation
SOCIAL MEDIA:
1) Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/SNCspacesystems
2) Twitter: https://twitter.com/SierraCindy
3) Google+: https://plus.google.com/+SierraNevadaCorporationSparks

CAREER OPPORTUNITIES:
1) https://careers.sncorp.com/
2) https://www.linkedin.com/company/sierra-nevada-corporation
Additional considerations:
– Live twitter feed
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XCOR

“your mission, our ship”
Operating Principle: XCOR seeks to provide “affordable suborbital launch services to academic, scientific, engineering, and observation-related markets” aboard its two person Lynx spacecraft. “XCOR designs, engineers, assembles, builds, maintains and operates these vehicles on a unique wet lease basis for spaceflight providers” thereby enabling individuals and institutions to “rent out” the spacecraft for a pre-defined period of time rather than paying for individual flights or seats.

Current vehicles: Lynx

Current Destinations: Sub-orbital
[accordions ] [accordion title=”Read More about XCOR” load=”hide”]XCOR is focused on developing the Lynx a single-stage rocket powered spacecraft with take-off and landing capability intended for sub-orbital flights. XCOR had originally partnered with SCX to sell wet-leases of its planes to clients. However, recently XCOR bought SCX forming a new company called XCOR space expeditions that will manage XCOR’s wet leases. Through this unique business model, XCOR will enable individuals and institutions to “rent out” the spacecraft for a pre-defined period of time rather than paying for individual flights or seats. The vehicle is to seat one passenger and one crew member. Of note, founders of XCOR including CEO Jeff Greason were originally part of the Rotary Rocket team.
Lynx
Inaugural Launch Date TBD
Acceleration Profile TBD
Passenger capacity 1
Life Support System TBD
Crew Worn Equipment TBD
Destinations Sub-orbital
Reusable Yes
EXPECTED AEROMEDICAL CHALLENGES:
1) Developing medical standards, determining risk profiles, and establishing best practices to minimize in-flight and-post flight events amongst passengers with underlying chronic illnesses such as CAD, diabetes, heart failure, etc.
2) Developing safety standards for commercial crew with regards to total radiation exposure and flight hours per day/week/month
VIDEOS:
1) YouTube: www.youtube.com/user/XCORAerospace
2) Vimeo: vimeo.com/xcor
NEWS:
1) http://xcor.com/press/2014/14-09-17_midland_airport_receives_spaceport_license.html
2) http://xcor.com/press/2014/14-08-15_XCOR_breaking_down_walls_with_midland.html
3) HTTP://XCOR.COM/PRESS/2014/14-06-30_XCOR_ACQUIRES_SPACE_EXPEDITION_CORPORATION.HTML
— USEFUL LINKS:
1) XCOR: http://www.xcor.com/
2) XCOR Space Expeditions: http://spacexc.com/en/home/
3) Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/XCOR_Aerospace
SOCIAL MEDIA:
1) Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/xcor
2) Twitter: https://twitter.com/XCOR
3) Google+: https://plus.google.com/105891759425688800595/about

CAREER OPPORTUNITIES:
1) XCOR: www.xcor.com/jobs/
2) LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/company/xcor-aerospace

Additional considerations:
– Live twitter feed
[/accordion] [/accordions]


BLUE ORIGINS

Operating Principle:“We’re working to lower the cost of spaceflight so that many people can afford to go and so that we humans can better continue exploring the solar system. Accomplishing this mission will take time, and we’re working on it methodically…We are currently focused on developing rocket-powered Vertical Takeoff and Vertical Landing (VTVL) vehicles for access to suborbital and orbital space”

Current vehicles: New Shepard vehicle, developing propulsion module based on Blue Earth-4 engine in partnership with United Launch Alliance

Current Destinations: Suborbital; plans for orbital
[accordions ] [accordion title=”Read More about Blue Origins” load=”hide”]Blue Origins was founded by Amazon.com founder Jeff Bezos and has plans to provide human access to sub-orbital and orbital space using its New Shepard vehicle. It currently partnering with United Launch Alliance to develop its BE-4 rocket technology. Blue Origins has provided few details about its future plans and has only a limited presence on social media.
New Shephard
Inaugural Launch Date Early 2020s
Acceleration Profile TBD
Passenger capacity 3 or more
Life Support System TBD
Crew Worn Equipment TBD
Destinations Low-earth orbit
Reusable Yes
EXPECTED AEROMEDICAL CHALLENGES:
1) Developing medical standards, determining risk profiles, and establishing best practices to minimize in-flight and-post flight events amongst passengers with underlying chronic illnesses such as CAD, diabetes, heart failure, etc.
2) Developing safety standards for commercial crew with regards to total radiation exposure and flight hours per day/week/month
VIDEOS:
1) YouTube: www.youtube.com/user/blueoriginchannel
NEWS:
1) http://www.space.com/27183-blue-origin-rocket-engine-ula-launches.html
2) http://www.space.com/23815-secretive-blue-origin-company-test-fires-new-rocket-engine-video.html
3) http://www.nbcnews.com/science/space/bezos-vs-musk-blue-origin-ula-turn-heat-rocket-battle-n205581
— USEFUL LINKS:
1) Blue Origin: www.blueorigin.com
2) Wikipedia: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blue_Origin
SOCIAL MEDIA:
1) NONE
CAREER OPPORTUNITIES:
1) www.blueorigin.com/careers/
2) LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/company/blue-origin

Additional considerations:
– Live twitter feed
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UNITED LAUNCH ALLIANCE

Operating Principle: ULA is a 50-50 partnership between Boeing and Lockheed-Martin corporations that operates multi-stage to orbit rockets for civilian, military and commercial operators.

Current vehicles: Atlas V

Current Destinations: Low-Earth Orbit
[accordions ] [accordion title=”Read More about ULA” load=”hide”]United launch alliance caters to a unique niche in the commercial spaceflight market by providing multi-stage rocket boosters capable of launching payloads and spacecraft to low-earth orbit. ULA’s primary rocket is the Atlas V, developed in 2002 and following in the footsteps of the famous line of Atlas rockets dating back to the 1950s. Unlike other commercial space operators, ULA has no spacecraft or capsules of its own that are capable of transporting crew or cargo to orbital destinations. Instead, ULA has become an integral part of the commercial human spaceflight industry by partnering with other operators such as Boeing and Sierra Nevada to launch their CST-100 and Dream Chaser spacecrafts, respectively. ULA recently announced a partnership with Blue Origins to jointly develop BO’s new rocket the BE-4 which it anticipates will replace the Russian made RD-180 that currently powers the first-stage of the Atlas V. ULA has been in discussions with Bigelow Aerospace to launch space-flight participants to its planned private space station likely using either a CST-100 or dream chaser spacecraft as its transportation vehicle. ULA received NASA funding through the first phase of the Commercial Crew Development program to develop an Emergency Detection System to human rate the Atlas V and anticipates completing initial test flights of the Boeing CST-100 and modified Atlas V combination sometime in 2015.
EXPECTED AEROMEDICAL CHALLENGES:
1) Developing medical standards, determining risk profiles, and establishing best practices to minimize in-flight and-post flight events amongst passengers with underlying chronic illnesses such as CAD, diabetes, heart failure, etc.
2) Developing safety standards for commercial crew with regards to total radiation exposure and flight hours per day/week/month
VIDEOS:
1) YouTube: www.youtube.com/user/UnitedLaunchAlliance
2) Vimeo: vimeo.com/tag:united+launch+alliance
NEWS:
1)
— USEFUL LINKS:
1) ULA website: www.ulalaunch.com
2) Wikipedia: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Launch_Alliance
SOCIAL MEDIA:
1) Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/ulalaunch
2) Twitter: https://twitter.com/ulalaunch
3) Google+: https://plus.google.com/111735333959081017951/about

CAREER OPPORTUNITIES:
1) www.ulalaunch.com/careers.aspx
2) LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/company/ula—united-launch-alliance—lockheed-martin-&-boeing

Additional considerations: Live twitter feed
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BIGELOW AEROSPACE

Operating Principle: “Since 1999 our mission has been to provide affordable options for spaceflight to national space agencies and corporate clients. In 2006 and 2007, we launched our orbiting prototypes Genesis I and Genesis II. Using our patented expandable habitats, our plan is to greatly exceed the usable space of the International Space Station at a fraction of the cost by developing our next generation spacecraft.”

Current vehicles: Genesis I and Genesis II (orbiting prototypes), Bigelow expandable activity module (BEAM), BA 330

Current Destinations: Low-earth orbit
[accordions ] [accordion title=”Read More about Bigelow Aerospace” load=”hide”]Bigelow aerospace is developing inflatable habitation modules that can be linked to form their own space-station or can be docked to the ISS to dramatically increase the amount of habitable volume for crewed space based activities. These modules are to be launched to low-earth orbit aboard SpaceX falcon 9 rockets. BA has already flown the Genesis I and II prototypes which have been in orbit since 2006 and 2007, respectively. They have partnered with NASA to develop the Bigelow Expandable Activity Module which will dock with the ISS in early to late 2015. It will remain docked for two years during which time astronauts aboard the ISS will monitor life support system parameters. With the success of the BEAM, Bigelow eventually hopes to launch its BA330 modules which provide a habitable volume of 330 cubic meters compared to 110 cubic meters for the BEAM modules. Two of the BA330 modules will be linked to form the Bigelow “alpha station” which will serve as the flagship Bigelow space station and be marketed to governments and industry as well as space tourists.

BEAM and BA330
Inaugural Launch Date 2015
Acceleration Profile NA
Passenger capacity TBD
Life Support System TBD
Crew Worn Equipment Shirt-sleeves environment
Destinations Low-Earth Orbit
Reusable NA
EXPECTED AEROMEDICAL CHALLENGES:
1) Developing medical standards, determining risk profiles, and establishing best practices to minimize in-flight and-post flight events amongst passengers with underlying chronic illnesses such as CAD, diabetes, heart failure, etc.
2) Developing safety standards for commercial crew with regards to total radiation exposure and flight hours per day/week/month
VIDEOS:
1) YouTube: www.youtube.com/user/BigelowAerospace
NEWS:
— USEFUL LINKS:
1) Bigelow Aerospace webiste: http://www.bigelowaerospace.com/
2) Wikipedia: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bigelow_Aerospace
SOCIAL MEDIA:
1) Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/pages/Bigelow-Aerospace/109662302394191
2) Twitter: https://twitter.com/BigelowSpace
3) Google+: https://plus.google.com/113262097224543577789

CAREER OPPORTUNITIES:
1) www.bigelowaerospace.com/careers-intro.php
2) LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/company/bigelow-aerospace

Additional considerations:
– Live twitter feed
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World View

Operating Principle: To conduct sub-orbital flights using high-altitude balloons instead of rocket powered spacecraft
Current vehicles: Worldview Gondola and balloon
Current Destinations: Upper Stratosphere (105-120,000 ft)
[accordions ] [accordion title=”Read More about World View” load=”hide”]Worldview is adapting existing high-altitude balloon technology to carry space-flight passengers to the edge of the stratosphere at approximately 105-120,000 feet. From this vantage point, passengers will have the opportunity to glimpse the stark contrast between Earth’s atmosphere and the edge of space. The company has developed advancement in parafoil technology that allow the gondola to gently glide down to the surface once the flight is completed. Worldview offers passengers a lengthier ride than those offered by operators flying rocket powered spacecraft while still providing dramatic views of the curvature of the Earth. However, passengers will not experience weightlessness. WorldView plans to offer its first flights in 2016.
BEAM and BA330
Inaugural Launch Date 2016
Acceleration Profile Minimal acceleration
Passenger capacity 6 passengers, 2 crew
Life Support System Fully pressurized cabin
Crew Worn Equipment Shirt-sleeves environment
Destinations Sub-orbital, stratospheric
Reusable Yes
EXPECTED AEROMEDICAL CHALLENGES:
1) Developing safety standards for commercial crew with regards to total radiation exposure and flight hours per day/week/month
2) Given longer flight profile and limited capacity to abort flight, consideration for provision of medical care on-board spacecraft, real-time monitoring and screening passengers prior to flight
VIDEOS:
1) www.youtube.com/watch?v=0I60Pu869sQ
2) www.youtube.com/watch?v=bNQvr36FW3k
NEWS:
1) HTTP://IO9.COM/SPACE-TOURISM-COMPANY-SHATTERS-HIGH-ALTITUDE-PARAFOIL-F-1595789239
— USEFUL LINKS:
1) WorldView webiste: http://worldviewexperience.com/
2) Wikipedia: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_view
SOCIAL MEDIA:
1) Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/WorldViewExperience
CAREER OPPORTUNITIES:
1) http://worldviewexperience.com/careers/

Additional considerations:
Live twitter feed
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Useful Links and Resources:

NASA commercial space transportation website: http://www.nasa.gov/exploration/commercial/#.U7nBVPldXW4

NASA commercial crew and cargo program office:

http://www.nasa.gov/offices/c3po/home/index.html#.U7nGQfldXW4

NASA commercial crew program:

http://www.nasa.gov/exploration/commercial/crew/index.html#.U7nGR_ldXW4

NASA Open Agreement Initiative:

http://www.nasa.gov/open/plan/space-act.html

Space.com: Private spaceflight: http://www.space.com/spaceflight/private-spaceflight/

Spacex.com” http://www.spacex.com/

Commercial Crewed Gets Whittled Down to 2.5

 

Twitter feeds:

@spacex

@virgingalactic

@sierranevada

@blueorigin

@orbitalsciences

@XCOR

@ulalaunch (united launch alliance)

@boeing


History:

(reference: NASA Commercial Orbital Transportation Services Final Report, Feb 2014)

Space Acts Agreement 1958

Initial NASA partnerships with contractors during the Mercury, Gemini and Apollo eras – a relationship defined by fairly strict NASA oversight

Changes to NASA-industry relations in the 1980s – 1984 Commercial Space Launch Act signed by Ronald Reagan

–        Establishment of Office of Commercial space programs at NASA to promote private sector uses for NASA-developed technologies

–        Office of commercial space transportation established w/in the Dept. of Transportation

–        Early operators: Orbital Science corp. and Space Services inc.

–        Challenger tragedy and its impact on commercial operators

1990’s – “Faster, Better, Cheaper” era with increased NASA collaboration and decreased oversight lead to development of X33 and X34 space planes as well as the Roton, by the rotary rocket company

Stepping stones to development of COTS and increasing and evolving NASA partnership with commercial spaceflight sector

–        Commercial Space Act of 1998 – “encouraged the development of commercial services by requiring the government to “acquire space transportation services from United States commercial providers whenever such services are required in the course of its activities”

–        Vision for Space Exploration 2004 – George W. Bush, directed NASA to acquire cargo transportation to ISS capability through commercial means

–        NASA Authorization Act of 2005 directed NASA Administrator to “develop a commercialization plan to   support the human missions to the Moon and Mars, to support low-Earth orbit activities

–        Concept exploration and refinement study allocated funds to companies to determine concepts for the human lunar exploration and Orion Crew Exploration vehicle

Scaled Composites wins Ansari X prize and demonstrates commercial capability to send a human to 100km twice in two weeks and safely bring them back paving the way for private operators to demonstrate spaceflight capability

More to come…

 

 

“Suborbital Commercial Space Flight Crewmember Medical Issues” (507.2 KiB)

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