In 2006, the Space Medicine Association Executive Committee was asked to remove Dr. Strughold’s name from the Strughold Award due to alleged atrocities committed during World War II. After a two year investigation, which included obtaining classified files from the U.S. Dept. of Justice through the Freedom of Information Act, the Committee decided that there was no evidence of any atrocities, declined to remove his name and officially reported this to the Aerospace Medical Association Council and the Space Medicine Association (SMA) membership. The allegations resurfaced through a front page article in the Wall Street Journal published on Nov. 30, 2012. The SMA Executive Committee decided to suspend the Strughold Award for 2013, then released the details of the investigation to all members of the SMA, and asked for a vote from the entire SMA membership whether to retire or to continue the Strughold Award. Links are available below for the Wall Street Journal article and the results of the investigation.
On October 1, 2013, the Space Medicine Association’s Executive Committee announced that the Space Medicine Association Strughold Award had been retired. The award had been given every year for the past 50 years “for dedication and outstanding contributions in advancing the frontiers of Space Medicine, and/or for sustained contributions to furthering the goals of the Space Medicine Association”. As the most prestigious award sponsored by the organization, it had been given to the most distinguished leaders in operational and research oriented space medicine. While there was no evidence to demonstrate that Dr. Strughold was directly involved in any atrocities during World War II or that he was a member of the Nazi party, the award created controversy which was distracting to the main work and goals of the Space Medicine Association. The decision was the result of extensive deliberations and a formal vote by the Space Medicine Association members.
Dr. Johnston is a member of the Clinical Faculties, at the University of Texas Medical Branch, in the Deptartment of Preventive, Occupational and Environmental Medicine in Galveston, Texas and at Wright State University, in the Department of Aerospace Medicine in Dayton, Ohio. He has served on the Advisory and Oversight Committees for the National Science Foundation’s American Polar Medicine Program.
Dr. Johnston was the Health Maintenance Facility Project (Space Station Freedom) physician with Krug/Wyle Life Sciences from 1991-1994. He is currently with the NASA Medical Operations Branch of the NASA Johnson Space Center where he has been a Medical Officer and Flight Surgeon since 1994.. He has been the lead physician for the International Space Station Emergency Crew Return Vehicle development and has supported over 25 Shuttle missions (12 as lead Crew Surgeon), including the unfortunate STS-107 Columbia mission. He recently completed the assignment as the lead Crew Surgeon for the STS-129 and STS-132 missions and the ISS Expedition 16 and 29 missions. He is the Lead for the NASA and the International Space Station Fatigue Management Teams. He has published numerous articles on operational space medicine and parabolic research on methods for providing Advanced Life Support and medical evacuation/transport in space.
Dr. Johnston is Board Certified in Aerospace Medicine from the American Board of Preventive Medicine and a Fellow of the Aerospace Medical Association. He was President of the Space Medicine Association in 2005, and the President of the Society of NASA Flight Surgeons in 2006, and received the Society of NASA Flight Surgeone’s Lovelace Award in 2011.
Mike has contributed extensively to the field of space medicine inlcuding his pioneering efforts in the design of medical systems for Space Station Freedom and the International Space Station. As a specialist in Internal Medicine and Aerospace Medicine, he served as a NASA flight surgeon during the Shuttle-Mir missions. He was the Medical Operations lead for the International Space Station and he was serving as the lead crew surgeon for the first ISS crew when he was selected as an astronaut in 2000. On his first space flight in 2009 he launched on a Soyuz spacecraft from Kazakhstan, living and working for six months as a Flight Engineer on the International Space Station. He performed two EVA’s (extra vehicular activities) in a Russian Orlan spacesuit during his tour of duty. Earlier this year Mike served as a Mission Specialist aboard STS-133, the final trip into space for the shuttle Discovery.
In addition to multiple scientific publications and presentations, Mike is the Senior Editor for the textbook, Principles of Clinical Medicine for Space Flight, published in 2008. Mike Barratt’s career serves as a tribute to the man for whom this award was named, the “father of space medicine”, Humbertus Strughold.
PERSONAL DATA: Born on April 16, 1959 in Vancouver, Washington. Considers Camas, Washington, to be his home town. Married to the former Michelle Lynne Sasynuik. They have five children. His father and mother, Joseph and Donna Barratt, reside in Camas, Washington. Personal and recreational interests include writing, sailing, boat restoration and maintenance, family and church activities.
EDUCATION: Graduated from Camas High School, Camas, WA, 1977. B.S., Zoology, University of Washington, 1981. M.D., Northwestern University, 1985. Completed three year residency in Internal Medicine at Northwestern University 1988, completed Chief Residency year at Veterans Administration Lakeside Hospital in Chicago, 1989; Completed residency and Master’s program in Aerospace Medicine, Wright State University, 1991. Board certified in Internal and Aerospace Medicine.
ORGANIZATIONS: Aerospace Medical Association and the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
SPECIAL HONORS: W. Randolph Lovelace Award (1998), Society of NASA Flight Surgeons; Rotary National Award for Space Achievement Foundation Nominee (1998); Melbourne W. Boynton Award (1995), American Astronautical Society; USAF Flight Surgeons Julian Ward Award (1992); Wright State University Outstanding Graduate Student, Aerospace Medicine (1991); Alpha Omega Alpha Medical Honor Society, Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, IL (1988); Phi Beta Kappa, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (1981).
EXPERIENCE: Dr. Barratt came to NASA JSC in May 1991 employed as a project physician with KRUG Life Sciences working on medical systems for Space Station Freedom. In July 92 he was assigned as NASA Flight Surgeon working in Space Shuttle Medical Operations. In January 94 he was assigned to the joint US/Russian Shuttle – Mir Program, working and training extensively in the Cosmonaut Training Center, Star City, Russia in support of the Mir-18 / STS-71 and subsequent missions.
From July 95 through July 98, he served as Medical Operations Lead for the International Space Station (ISS). A frequent traveler to Russia, he worked with counterparts at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center and Institute of Biomedical Problems, as well as other International Partner centers. Dr. Barratt served as lead crew surgeon for first expedition crew to ISS from July 98 until selected as an astronaut candidate. He serves as Associate Editor for Space Medicine for the journal Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine, and is senior editor of the textbook, Principles of Clinical Medicine for Space Flight.
NASA EXPERIENCE: Selected as a mission specialist by NASA in July 2000, Dr. Barratt reported for training in August 2000. Following the completion of 2 years of training and evaluation, he was assigned technical duties in the Astronaut Office Station Operations Branch.
Assigned to long duration flight training in 2005, Dr. Barratt launched on Soyuz TMA-14 on March 26, 2009 to the International Space Station and served as a member of Expeditions 19 and 20. This time period included the transition from three to six permanent ISS crewmembers, two EVAs, two visiting Space Shuttles, and arrival of the first Japanese HTV. Completing 199 days in space, Dr. Barratt landed on October 11, 2009.
STS-133 (February 24 – March 9, 2011), was the 39th and final mission for Space Shuttle Discovery. During the 13-day flight, the Discovery crew delivered the Permanent Multipurpose Module (PMM) and the fourth Express Logistics Carrier (ELC) to the ISS. The mission’s two space walks assisted in outfitting the truss of the station and completed a variety of other tasks designed to upgrade station systems. The mission was accomplished in 202 Earth orbits, traveling 5.3 million miles in 307 hours and 3 minutes.
Irene Duhart Long, M.D., is the Kennedy Space Center Chief Medical Officer. Dr. Long has been at the Center since 1982. She is responsible for the Center-level coordination and integration of Center elements providing Occupational Medicine, Aerospace Medicine, and Environmental Health functions. Dr. Long provides executive leadership and direction serving as the interface with Center senior management and organizations to assure support to employee health. She provides long-range and strategic planning and develops related initiatives to assure proactive, preventative approaches to comprehensive medical and environmental health programs.
From 1994 to 2000, Dr. Long served as the Director, Biomedical Office, John F. Kennedy Space Center. The Biomedical Office (JJ) provided program management of the Center’s Aerospace and Occupational Medicine, life sciences research, and environmental health programs, and operational management of the life sciences support facilities. The Biomedical Office provided and coordinated medical, environmental health, and environmental/ecological monitoring support to launch and landing activities and day-to-day institutional functions.
Prior to her assignment as Director of JJ in July 1994, Dr. Long was the Chief, Medical and Environmental Health Office in JJ. The Medical and Environmental Health Office was responsible for assuring a comprehensive Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health program directed toward the maintenance of the health of the KSC workforce. Medical operations activities included the provision and planning of emergency medical services in support of STS launch and landing activities. Additional responsibilities included coordination of human Life Sciences Flight Experiment requirements and operational management of the Baseline Data Collection Facility used for pre- and post-flight physiological data collection. Research related activities included medical screening and monitoring of research laboratory subjects and participation in operational research protocol development and implementation.
Dr. Long graduated from East High School in Cleveland, Ohio. She attended Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois, and received a Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) degree in Pre-medicine/Biology in 1973. She received a Doctor of Medicine (M.D.) degree from the St. Louis University School of Medicine in 1977. After two years of a General Surgery residency at the Cleveland Clinic and the Mount Sinai Hospital of Cleveland, she completed a three-year residency in Aerospace Medicine through Wright State University School of Medicine in Dayton, Ohio, and received a Masters of Science (M.S.) degree in Aerospace Medicine.
Dr. Long’s previous NASA experience during her Aerospace Medicine residency includes rotations at the Ames Research Center from July 1981 until March 1982, and at KSC from April 1982 until her appointment in July 1982.
Dr. Long is a member of the Aerospace Medical Association and its affiliated Space Medicine Branch, and the Society of NASA Flight Surgeons. She received the Society Presidential Award in 1995, and served as its President in 1999. In 1986 she received the Equal Opportunity Action Committee Group Achievement Award, and the KSC Federal Woman of the Year Award. In 1998, Dr. Long was presented with the Women in Aerospace Outstanding Achievement Award.
Dr. Long, a native of Cleveland, Ohio, presently lives in Merritt Island, Florida.
Dr. Vanderploeg is a Fellow and Past President of the Aerospace Medical Association, Past President of the Space Medicine Branch (now Association) and Past President of the Society of NASA Flight Surgeons, an FAA Senior Aviation Medical Examiner, and is Board Certified by the American Board of Preventive Medicine in both Aerospace Medicine and Occupational Medicine. He also has served as the Executive Director of the American Board of Preventive Medicine for the past 11 years.
Dr. Vanderploeg’s NASA career included serving as Crew Surgeon or Deputy Crew Surgeon for several Shuttle missions during the early years of the Space Shuttle program. He was the Chief of the Flight Medicine Clinic followed by Chief of the Medical Operations Branch of the Medical Sciences Division at the NASA Johnson Space Center before being appointed as the first director of the Space Biomedical Research Institute.
Following NASA, he was the Chair of the Occupational Medicine Department for Kelsey-Seybold Clinic, Executive Vice President and General Manager for Krug Life Sciences, and Program Manager for Wyle Laboratories. Dr. Vanderploeg has been active in several projects to develop medical guidelines for commercial space tourists and crew members. He currently is the Chief Medical Officer for Virgin Galactic and chairs their medical advisory panel. He has conducted medical evaluations and centrifuge training on the Virgin Galactic Founders – the first 100 individuals to fly on Space Ship Two.
He served as a NASA Johnson Space Center flight surgeon from 1987-1995 and was the Chief of the Flight Medicine Clinic and Chief of Medical Operations-Space Shuttle. During this time, he was the crew surgeon or deputy crew surgeon on 15 Shuttle missions and provided direct mission support to 45 Shuttle flights. He has served as the President of the AsMA, the Space Medicine Association, and the Society of NASA Flight Surgeons.
In 1995, he joined the University of Texas Medical Branch in Galveston where he currently serves as the residency director of the UTMB/NASA Aerospace Medicine Residency program and director of Clinical Preventive Medicine. He is currently involved on the International Artificial Gravity research project at UTMB. He still provides astronaut gynecological care and consultation services at the Flight Medicine Clinic at the Johnson Space Center. He also coordinates the Wyle Laboratories/UTMB physicians that support NASA at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia. He is the medical director for Space Adventures where he consults in commercial spaceflight space medicine. He served as the crew surgeon for Drs. Greg Olsen and Charles Simonyi on their Russian Soyuz flights to the International Space Station and is currently assigned to the Russian Soyuz TMA flight of Richard Garriott.
Earl H. Wood, MD, Ph.D., who served The American Physiological Society as the Society’s 53rd President from 1980-1981 passed away on March 18, 2009, at age 97.
Wood was born Jan. 1, 1912, in the front room of a house on Walnut Streeet in Mankato, Minn., his family eventually moved to a 20-acre farm overlooking the Minnesota River just outside Mankato. His father, William C., who worked in real estate, also acquired a large Victorian lakeside hotel overlooking Lake Washington in Le Sueur County, Minn., where the family spent summers. On Dec. 20, 1936, he married Ada Catherine Peterson of Big Lake, Minn. A graduate of Macalester College in St. Paul, she helped to put him through medical school. In later years the couple bought a farm along the Zumbro River near Rock Dell, where they hiked and nurtured walnut trees.
Wood attended Macalester College in St. Paul, MN, graduating in 1934. At that time, he entered the School of Medicine of the University of Minnesota but gave up his medical studies temporarily for training in Maurice Visscher’s department, where he received the M.S. degree in 1939. Two years later (1941) he was awarded both the M.D. and the Ph.D. degrees, the latter for research on water and electrolytes of cardiac muscle, especially under the influence of digitalis. He spent 1940-41 at the University of Pennsylvania as an NRC fellow in the Department of Pharmacology, and for the following year he was instructor in pharmacology at Harvard. In 1942 Wood returned to Minnesota, to the Aeromedical Unit of the Mayo Foundation Laboratories, where he progressed steadily in rank in the Mayo Graduate School and then in the Mayo Medical School to become professor of physiology and of medicine in 1951. He officially retired from these positions in 1982.
Wood became an APS member in 1943. He was active at first mainly in the Circulation Group and served as a member of its Steering Committee (1962-1964; chairman, 1963-1964). He received its Carl J. Wiggers Award in 1968. He was elected to APS Council in 1977 and became president elect in 1979. From 1978-1980 he was chairman of the Centennial Celebration Committee, and from 1982 to 1985 he served on the Finance Committee. Responsibilities with FASEB ran very much in parallel with those in the Society; in addition to his year as president of FASEB (1981-1982), he was a member of the Long-Range Planning and Development Fund Committees (1982-1985) and the Public Affairs Committee (1984-1985).
With his colleagues, Wood played a pivotal role in the design of investigations to clarify the problems of sudden pilot blackout related to increased gravitational force caused by dive-bombing and high-speed combat maneuvers. A human centrifuge was installed in the Mayo Medical Sciences building. Wood often served as a research subject, testing human exposure to G-forces. The anti-G suit, developed with the cooperation of a female undergarment manufacturer, became standard equipment in the Air Force.
Following World War II, Wood organized a laboratory at Mayo for the study of human circulation resulting in the development of an ear oximeter, which could provide immediate readings of oxygen saturation levels in the blood. The instrumentation was sometimes tested on three of his young children. His lab also perfected cardiac catheterization as a diagnostic tool which, using blue and green dye concentrations, led to real-time monitoring of circulation during cardiac surgery. By the 1960s Wood’s research and teaching attracted graduate students from Mayo as well as from institutions around the world.
His later interests centered on a high-speed, computer-based X-ray scanning system that would provide three-dimensional views of the moving heart, lungs, and circulation. It was an idea he hatched while watching football instant replays on television. Although the imaging machine, called the “dynamic spatial reconstructor,” he developed while head of the Biodynamics Research Unit at Mayo was superceded by other techniques, his early dream of non-invasive, accurate diagnosis has become common practice.
Wood has published over 700 articles and numerous book chapters. His prolific academic career resulted in countless honors, awards, and distinctions from many professional associations. Wood’s awards include the Presidential Certificate of Merit from Harry Truman in 1947 for his development of the anti-G suit. He received from Macalester College an honorary degree of D.Sc. in 1950 and a Distinguished Citizen Award in 1974. In 1963 he was given awards by the Aerospace Medicine Association and by Modern Medicine. The American College of Chest Physicians (1974), the Mayo Foundation (1978 and 1984), and the Biomedical Engineering Society (1978) have all honored him with lectureships. He is an honorary member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (1977) and of the American College of Cardiology (1978). In 1982, he received an honorary degree, doctor of medicine, from the University of Bern, Switzerland, and in the following year he was given both the Humboldt Prize for Senior U.S. Scientists by the government of West Germany and the John Phillips Memorial Award of the American College of Physicians. In 1995 Wood received the Ray G. Daggs Award for his distinguished long-term service to the science of physiology and, in particular, to the American Physiological Society. His most recent distinction particularly pleased his children: In 2002, former Mayo fellow Peter Osypka, who founded a successful medical instrumentation company based on his work in Wood’s lab, dedicated “Earl H. Wood Strasse” in Rheinfelden, Germany.
Wood is survived by four children, Phoebe Wood Busch (Nancy Miller) of Denver, Mark G. (Molly) of Fresno, Calif., Guy H. (Julie Croy) of Corvallis, Ore., and E. Andrew (Krista Coleman) of Rochester; four grandchildren and a great-granddaughter (in utero); a sister-in-law, Helen Nichols Wood of Montrose, Colo.; and numerous nieces and nephews. He was preceded in death by his wife in 2000, and his five siblings.
His legacy will live on in his numerous fundamental contributions to the fields of Physiology, operational Aerospace Medicine, and most importantly through the countless trainees and students that have had the privilege to work with him and get to know him as a world class research, teacher, and wonderful family man and human being.
As project scientist for human life sciences at NASA’s Johnson Space Center (JSC), my job is to oversee all research projects developed for shuttle/Mir flights that use humans as subjects. The Shuttle/Mir program is a series of joint U.S.-Russian missions involving NASA’s space shuttle and the Russian space station Mir.
I’m a physiologist and biophysicist by training. I’ve had this particular job since September 1994. My primary responsibility right now is to provide scientific and technical guidance to researchers working on human life sciences investigations for Shuttle/Mir flights.
I followed a fairly typical career path toward this job. I majored in biophysics at Ohio State University (B.S., 1977), and I earned my doctorate in physiology and biophysics at the University of Kentucky (Ph.D., 1983). In 1983, I moved to Houston to work with NASA and I have been here ever since.
I started out at JSC as a post-doctoral research associate working in the medical research branch. In 1985 I got a “real job” as a cardiovascular physiologist in the biomedical research branch at JSC. I’ve been involved with cardiovascular research at NASA ever since, overseeing investigations planned for shuttle, Shuttle-Mir and future International Space Station flights. I have been the principal investigator or a collaborator on a number of flight experiments. Since 1992 I’ve been an adjunct (that is, part-time) faculty member of the U.S. Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine at Brooks Air Force Base in San Antonio, Texas.
What I like best about my job is that I get to be involved intimately in human spaceflight. And I think it’s important work. What I like least about my job is the fact that I have to work in a BIG organization with lots of people who have different needs and desires.
No one person influenced me to become a space life scientist. But all of my science teachers, and some astronauts as well, inspired me to choose the career path I’m following. I have been interested in spaceflight for most of my life; I have wanted to be an astronaut since I was seven. When I was 12, however, I started wearing glasses. In those days, corrected vision was grounds for disqualification from “astronaut-hood.” (It’s okay for astronauts to wear glasses these days.)
I remember that in January 1969, right after Christmas vacation, my junior high science teacher, Mr. Pelligrino, welcomed me back from NASA’s Apollo 8 mission. He knew that I had been glued to the television for the duration of this flight. That kind of attention might have embarrassed other kids, but it
I was born in Rockdale, Texas (population 4,481) in 1955. When I was 10, I moved with my family to Massena, N.Y. — the opposite end of the world from Texas! When I was in my last year of high school we moved to Pittsburgh, Pa. I moved to Columbus, Ohio, for undergraduate school and Lexington, Ky. for graduate school. Now I live in Clear Lake, a community near JSC (I live four miles from my office). Houston is nearby and so is Galveston and its beaches.
I am 6’7″ (too tall to be an astronaut). I like public speaking, eating Japanese food (and most other types of food, too), and studying the history of human spaceflight. I enjoy jogging and bicycling as well, and I am learning to rollerblade. I also have a variety of other interests — geography, history, music, and just watching sunsets — which I hope make me a well-rounded person.
I have a son, Brian, who is seven years old and lives with his mother in Buffalo, N.Y. He likes reading, computers, hockey, soccer, and Chuck E. Cheese, and he comes to visit whenever his school schedule and my work schedule allow. This year I will be taking my son and my mom and dad to see a shuttle launch in Florida! A friend of mine is an astronaut on this mission and he invited us to come watch the launch.
I decided upon a goal early in my life — to get involved in spaceflight — and I have spent the rest of my life (so far, at least) trying to accomplish it. Sometimes I still feel like I’m not there yet, but other people have told me they admire my dedication and persistence. I used to believe that some day I would have the chance to fly in space. But the Challenger disaster in 1986, and subsequent events, have convinced me that I will never get the chance to go. The career I have is a pretty good “second-best,” however.
In my years at NASA I have flown on the KC-135 during parabolic flights so I know what it is like to be “weightless.” I’ve flown in airliners to Europe and Japan so I’ve seen some incredible views of Earth from high altitude. The differences between what I’ve done and seen and what I could experience in space are only a matter of degree.
I hope to keep working, either inside or outside of NASA, to help people explore space. The experience I have gained in working with complex organizations (primarily NASA and the Russian Space Agency) and using complex systems (the shuttle) will be valuable in confronting any challenges that may ahead for me. I hope that someday I might have an important position in NASA, or possibly elsewhere in the government, that would enable me to influence the direction we take in space exploration. Meanwhile, I am doing important work in an interesting place at an interesting time.
PERSONAL DATA: Born August 19, 1935, in Boston, Massachusetts, but considers Lexington, Kentucky, to be his hometown. Single. Six children (one deceased). His hobbies are chess, flying, gardening, literary criticism, microcomputers, parachuting, photography, reading, running, scuba diving, and soaring.
EDUCATION: Graduated from St. Mark’s School, Southborough, Massachusetts, in 1953; received a bachelor of science degree in mathematics and statistics from Syracuse University in 1958, a master of business administration degree in operations analysis and computer programming from the University of California at Los Angeles in 1959, a bachelor of arts degree in chemistry from Marietta College in 1960, a doctorate in medicine from Columbia University in 1964, a master of science in physiology and biophysics from the University of Kentucky in 1966, and a master of arts in literature from the University of Houston in 1987.
ORGANIZATIONS: Member of Alpha Kappa Psi, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Beta Gamma Sigma, the Civil Aviation Medical Association, the Flying Physicians Association, the International Academy of Astronautics, the Marine Corps Aviation Association, the National Aeronautic Association, the National Aerospace Education Council, the National Geographic Society, the Navy League, the New York Academy of Sciences, Omicron Delta Kappa, Phi Delta Theta, the Soaring Club of Houston, the Soaring Society of America, and the United States Parachute Association.
SPECIAL HONORS: National Defense Service Medal and an Outstanding Unit Citation as a member of the United States Marine Corps Squadron VMA-212 (1954); United States Air Force Post-doctoral Fellowship (1965-1966); National Heart Institute Post-doctoral Fellowship (1966-1967); Reese Air Force Base Commander’s Trophy (1969); American College of Surgeons I.S. Ravdin Lecture (1973); NASA Exceptional Service Medals (1974 & 1986); Flying Physicians Association Airman of the Year Award (1974 & 1983); NASA Space Flight Medals (1983, 1985, 1989, 1991, 1993, 1996); NASA Distinguished Service Medal (1992).
EXPERIENCE: Musgrave entered the United States Marine Corps in 1953, served as an aviation electrician and instrument technician, and as an aircraft crew chief while completing duty assignments in Korea, Japan, Hawaii, and aboard the carrier USS WASP in the Far East.
He has flown 17,700 hours in 160 different types of civilian and military aircraft, including 7,500 hours in jet aircraft. He has earned FAA ratings for instructor, instrument instructor, glider instructor, and airline transport pilot, and U.S. Air Force Wings. An accomplished parachutist, he has made more than 500 free falls — including over 100 experimental free-fall descents involved with the study of human aerodynamics.
Dr. Musgrave was employed as a mathematician and operations analyst by the Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, New York, during 1958.
He served a surgical internship at the University of Kentucky Medical Center in Lexington from 1964 to 1965, and continued there as a U. S. Air Force post-doctoral fellow (1965-1966), working in aerospace medicine and physiology, and as a National Heart Institute post-doctoral fellow (1966-1967), teaching and doing research in cardiovascular and exercise physiology. From 1967 to 1989, he continued clinical and scientific training as a part-time surgeon at the Denver General Hospital and as a part-time professor of physiology and biophysics at the University of Kentucky Medical Center.
He has written 25 scientific papers in the areas of aerospace medicine and physiology, temperature regulation, exercise physiology, and clinical surgery.
NASA EXPERIENCE: Dr. Musgrave was selected as a scientist-astronaut by NASA in August 1967. He completed astronaut academic training and then worked on the design and development of the Skylab Program. He was the backup science-pilot for the first Skylab mission, and was a CAPCOM for the second and third Skylab missions. Dr. Musgrave participated in the design and development of all Space Shuttle extravehicular activity equipment including spacesuits, life support systems, airlocks, and manned maneuvering units. From 1979 to 1982, and 1983 to 1984, he was assigned as a test and verification pilot in the Shuttle Avionics Integration Laboratory at JSC. He served as a spacecraft communicator (CAPCOM) for STS-31, STS-35, STS-36, STS-38 and STS-41, and lead CAPCOM for a number of subsequent flights. He was a mission specialist on STS-6 in 1983, STS-51F/Spacelab-2 in 1985, STS-33 in 1989 and STS-44 in 1991, was the payload commander on STS-61 in 1993, and a mission specialist on STS-80 in 1996. A veteran of six space flights, Dr. Musgrave has spent a total of 1,281 hours 59 minutes, 22 seconds in space. Dr. Musgrave left NASA in August 1997 to pursue private interests.
SPACE FLIGHT EXPERIENCE: Dr. Musgrave first flew on STS-6, which launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on April 4, 1983, and landed at Edwards Air Force Base, California, on April 9, 1983. During this maiden voyage of Space Shuttle Challenger, the crew performed the first Shuttle deployment of an IUS/TDRS satellite, and Musgrave and Don Peterson conducted the first Space Shuttle extravehicular activity (EVA) to test the new space suits and construction and repair devices and procedures. Mission duration was 5 days, 23 minutes, 42 seconds.
On STS-51F/Spacelab-2, the crew aboard Challenger launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on July 29, 1985, and landed at Edwards Air Force Base, California, on August 6, 1985. This flight was the first pallet-only Spacelab mission, and the first mission to operate the Spacelab Instrument Pointing System (IPS). It carried 13 major experiments in astronomy, astrophysics, and life sciences. During this mission, Dr. Musgrave served as the systems engineer during launch and entry, and as a pilot during the orbital operations. Mission duration was 7 days, 22 hours, 45 minutes, 26 seconds.
On STS-33, he served aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery, which launched at night from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on November 22, 1989. This classified mission operated payloads for the Department of Defense. Following 79 orbits, the mission concluded on November 27, 1989, with a landing at sunset on Runway 04 at Edwards Air Force Base, California. Mission duration was 5 days, 7 minutes, 32 seconds.
STS-44 also launched at night on November 24, 1991. The primary mission objective was accomplished with the successful deployment of a Defense Support Program (DSP) satellite with an Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) rocket booster. In addition the crew also conducted two Military Man in Space Experiments, three radiation monitoring experiments, and numerous medical tests to support longer duration Shuttle flights. The mission was concluded in 110 orbits of the Earth with Atlantis returning to a landing on the lakebed at Edwards Air Force Base, California, on December 1, 1991. Mission duration was 6 days, 22 hours, 50 minutes, 42 seconds.
STS-61 was the first Hubble Space Telescope (HST) servicing and repair mission. Following a night launch from Kennedy Space Center on December 2, 1993, the Endeavour rendezvoused with and captured the HST. During this 11-day flight, the HST was restored to its full capabilities through the work of two pairs of astronauts during a record 5 spacewalks. Dr. Musgrave performed 3 of these spacewalks. After having travelled 4,433,772 miles in 163 orbits of the Earth, Endeavour returned to a night landing in Florida on December 13, 1993. Mission duration was 10 days, 19 hours, 59 minutes.
On STS-80 (November 19 to December 7, 1996), the crew aboard Space Shuttle Columbia deployed and retrieved the Wake Shield Facility (WSF) and the Orbiting Retrievable Far and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer (ORFEUS) satellites. The free-flying WSF created a super vacuum in its wake in which to grow thin film wafers for use in semiconductors and the electronics industry. The ORFEUS instruments, mounted on the reusable Shuttle Pallet Satellite, studied the origin and makeup of stars. In completing this mission he logged a record 278 earth orbits, traveled over 7 million miles in 17 days, 15 hours, 53 minutes.
Most recently, she served as Board Engineer 2 on Russia’s Space Station Mir launching March 22, 1996 on STS-76 and returning September 26, 1996 aboard STS-79. During her 188 days on Mir she performed numerous life science and physical science experiments. She currently holds the United States single mission space flight endurance record and the record for the most continuous flight hours on orbit by a woman.
For her contributions in furthering the study of space physiology and medicine particularly with regard to long duration space flight, Dr. Lucid is awarded the Hubertus Strughold Award.
PERSONAL DATA: Born January 14, 1943, in Shanghai, China, but considers Bethany, Oklahoma, to be her hometown. Married to Michael F. Lucid of Indianapolis, Indiana. They have two daughters and one son, five granddaughters and one grandson. Shannon enjoys flying, camping, hiking, and reading. Her parents, Mr. and Mrs. Joseph O. Wells, are deceased.
EDUCATION: Graduated from Bethany High School, Bethany, Oklahoma, in 1960; received a bachelor of science degree in chemistry from the University of Oklahoma in 1963, and master of science and doctor of philosophy degrees in biochemistry from the University of Oklahoma in 1970 and 1973, respectively.
AWARDS: Dr. Lucid is the recipient of numerous awards.
EXPERIENCE: Dr. Lucid’s experience includes a variety of academic assignments, such as teaching assistant at the University of Oklahoma’s Department of Chemistry from 1963 to 1964; senior laboratory technician at the Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation from 1964 to 1966; chemist at Kerr-McGee, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 1966 to 1968; graduate assistant at the University of Oklahoma Health Science Center’s Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology from 1969 to 1973; and research associate with the Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, from 1974 until her selection to the astronaut candidate training program.
Dr. Lucid is a commercial, instrument, and multi-engine rated pilot.
NASA EXPERIENCE: Selected by NASA in January 1978, Dr. Lucid became an astronaut in August 1979. She is qualified for assignment as a mission specialist on Space Shuttle flight crews. Some of her technical assignments have included: the Shuttle Avionics Integration Laboratory (SAIL); the Flight Software Laboratory, in Downey, California, working with the rendezvous and proximity operations group; Astronaut Office interface at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, participating in payload testing, Shuttle testing, and launch countdowns; spacecraft communicator (CAPCOM) in the JSC Mission Control Center during numerous Space Shuttle missions; Chief of Mission Support; Chief of Astronaut Appearances. A veteran of five space flights, Dr. Lucid has logged 5,354 hours (223 days) in space. She served as a mission specialist on STS-51G (June 17-24, 1985), STS-34 (October 18-23, 1989), STS-43 (August 2-11, 1991), STS-58 (October 18 to November 1, 1993), and as a Board Engineer 2 on Russia’s Space Station Mir (launching March 22, 1996 aboard STS-76 and returning September 26, 1996 aboard STS-79). Dr. Lucid was the first woman to hold an international record for the most flight hours in orbit by any non-Russian, and until June 2007 she also held the record for the most flight hours in orbit by any woman in the world. From February 2002 until September 2003, Dr. Lucid served as NASA’s Chief Scientist stationed at NASA Headquarters, Washington D.C., with responsibility for developing and communicating the agency’s science and research objectives to the outside world. Dr. Lucid has resumed duties at the Johnson Space Center, Houston.
SPACE FLIGHT EXPERIENCE: STS-51G Discovery (June 17-24, 1985) was a 7-day mission during which crew deployed communications satellites for Mexico (Morelos), the Arab League (Arabsat), and the United States (AT&T Telstar). They used the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) to deploy and later retrieve the SPARTAN satellite, which performed 17 hours of x-ray astronomy experiments while separated from the Space Shuttle. In addition, the crew activated the Automated Directional Solidification Furnace (ADSF), six Getaway Specials, and participated in biomedical experiments. The mission was accomplished in 112 orbits of the Earth, traveling 2.5 million miles in 169 hours and 39 minutes. Landing was at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB), California.
STS-34 Atlantis (October 18-23, 1989) was a 5-day mission during which the deployed the Galileo spacecraft on its journey to explore Jupiter, operated the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet Instrument (SSBUV) to map atmospheric ozone, and performed numerous secondary experiments involving radiation measurements, polymer morphology, lightning research, microgravity effects on plants, and a student experiment on ice crystal growth in space. The mission was accomplished in 79 orbits of the Earth, traveling 1.8 million miles in 119 hours and 41 minutes. Landing was at Edwards Air Force Base, California.
STS-43 Atlantis (August 2-11, 1991) was a nine-day mission during which the crew deployed the fifth Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS-E). The crew also conducted 32 physical, material, and life science experiments, mostly relating to the Extended Duration Orbiter and Space Station Freedom. The mission was accomplished in 142 orbits of the Earth, traveling 3.7 million miles in 213 hours, 21 minutes, 25 seconds. STS-43 Atlantis was the eighth Space Shuttle to land at KSC).
STS-58 Columbia (October 18 to November 1, 1993). This record duration fourteen-day mission was recognized by NASA management as the most successful and efficient Spacelab flight flown by NASA. The STS-58 crew performed neurovestibular, cardiovascular, cardiopulmonary, metabolic, and musculoskeletal medical experiments on themselves and 48 rats, expanding our knowledge of human and animal physiology both on earth and in space flight. In addition, they performed 16 engineering tests aboard the Orbiter Columbia and 20 Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project experiments. The mission was accomplished in 225 orbits of the Earth, traveling 5.8 million miles in 336 hours, 13 minutes, 01 seconds. Landing was at Edwards Air Force Base, California. In completing this flight Dr. Lucid logged 838 hours, 54 minutes in space .
Dr. Lucid currently holds the United States single mission space flight endurance record on the Russian Space Station Mir. Following a year of training in Star City, Russia, her journey started with liftoff at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on March 22, 1996 aboard STS-76 Atlantis. Following docking, she transferred to the Mir Space Station. Assigned as a Board Engineer 2, she performed numerous life science and physical science experiments during the course of her stay aboard Mir. Her return journey to KSC was made aboard STS-79 Atlantis on September 26, 1996. In completing this mission Dr. Lucid traveled 75.2 million miles in 188 days, 04 hours, 00 minutes, 14 seconds.
PERSONAL DATA: Born July 3, 1943, in Marianna, Florida, but considers Jacksonville, Florida, to be his hometown. Married to the former Rex Kirby Johnson of South Ponte Vedra Beach, Florida. They have three sons. During his free time, he enjoys classical music, and electronic design. Dr. Thagard has published articles on digital and analog electronic design. His mother, Mrs. Mary F. Nicholson, is a resident of St. Peterburg, Florida. His father, Mr. James E. Thagard, is deceased. Her mother, Mrs. Rex Johnson, resides in Tallahassee, Florida.
EDUCATION: Graduated from Paxon Senior High School, Jacksonville, Florida, in 1961; attended Florida State University where he received bachelor and master of science degrees in engineering science in 1965 and 1966, respectively, and subsequently performed pre-med course work; received a doctor of medicine degree from the University of Texas Southwestern Medical School in 1977.
ORGANIZATIONS: Member, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Aerospace Medical Association, and Phi Kappa Phi.
SPECIAL HONORS: Awarded 11 Air Medals, the Navy Commendation Medal with Combat “V”, the Marine Corps “E” Award, the Vietnam Service Medal, and the Vietnamese Cross of Gallantry with Palm.
EXPERIENCE: Dr. Thagard held a number of research and teaching posts while completing the academic requirements for various earned degrees.
In September 1966, he entered active duty with the United States Marine Corps Reserve. He achieved the rank of Captain in 1967, was designated a naval aviator in 1968, and was subsequently assigned to duty flying F-4s with VMFA-333 at Marine Corps Air Station, Beaufort, South Carolina. He flew 163 combat missions in Vietnam while assigned to VMFA-115 from January 1969 to 1970. He returned to the United States and an assignment as aviation weapons division officer with VMFA-251 at the Marine Corps Air Station, Beaufort, South Carolina.
Thagard resumed his academic studies in 1971, pursuing additional studies in electrical engineering, and a degree in medicine; prior to coming to NASA, he was interning in the Department of Internal Medicine at the Medical University of South Carolina. He is a licensed physician.
He is a pilot and has logged over 2,200 hours flying time–the majority in jet aircraft.
NASA EXPERIENCE: Dr. Thagard was selected as an astronaut candidate by NASA in January 1978. In August 1979, he completed a one-year training and evaluation period, making him eligible for assignment as a mission specialist on future Space Shuttle flights. A veteran of five space flights, he has logged over 140 days in space. He was a mission specialist on on STS-7 in 1983, STS 51-B in 1985, STS-30 in 1989, was the payload commander on STS-42 in 1992, and was the cosmonaut/researcher on the Russian Mir 18 mission in 1995.
Dr. Thagard first flew on the crew of STS-7, which launched from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on June 8, 1983. This was the second flight for the Orbiter Challenger and the first mission with a crew of five persons. During the mission, the STS-7 crew deployed satellites for Canada (ANIK C-2) and Indonesia (PALAPA B-1); operated the Canadian-built Remote Manipulator System (RMS) to perform the first deployment and retrieval exercise with the Shuttle Pallet Satellite (SPAS-01); conducted the first formation flying of the Orbiter with a free-flying satellite (SPAS-01); carried and operated the first U.S./German cooperative materials science payload (OSTA-2); and operated the Continuous Flow Electrophoresis System (CFES) and the Monodisperse Latex Reactor (MLR) experiments, in addition to activating seven “Getaway Specials.” During the flight Dr. Thagard conducted various medical tests and collected data on physiological changes associated with astronaut adaptation to space. He also retrieved the rotating SPAS-01 using the RMS. Mission duration was 147 hours before landing at Edwards Air Force Base, California, on June 24, 1983.
Dr. Thagard then flew on STS 51-B, the Spacelab-3 science mission, which launched from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on April 29, 1985, aboard the Challenger. He assisted the commander and pilot on ascent and entry. Mission duration was 168 hours. Duties on orbit included satellite deployment operation with the NUSAT satellite as well as animal care for the 24 rats and two squirrel monkeys contained in the Research Animal Holding Facility (RAHF). Other duties were operation of the Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (GFFC), Urinary Monitoring System (UMS), and the Ionization States of Solar and Galactic Cosmic Ray Heavy Nuclei (IONS) experiment. After 110 orbits of the Earth, Challenger landed at Edwards Air Force Base, California, on May 6, 1985.
He next served on the crew of STS-30, which launched from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on May 4, 1989, aboard the Orbiter Atlantis. During this four-day mission, crew members successfully deployed the Magellan Venus-exploration spacecraft, the first U.S. planetary science mission launched since 1978, and the first planetary probe to be deployed from the Shuttle. Magellan is scheduled to arrive at Venus in mid-1990 and will map the entire surface of Venus for the first time, using specialized radar instruments. In addition, crew members also worked on secondary payloads involving fluid research in general, chemistry and electrical storm studies. Mission duration was 97 hours. Following 64 orbits of the Earth, the STS-30 mission concluded with a landing at Edwards Air Force Base, California, on May 8, 1989.
Dr. Thagard served as payload commander on STS-42, aboard the Shuttle Discovery, which lifted off from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on January 22, 1992. Fifty five major experiments conducted in the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 module were provided by investigators from eleven countries, and represented a broad spectrum of scientific disciplines. During 128 orbits of the Earth, the STS-42 crew accomplished the mission’s primary objective of investigating the effects of microgravity on materials processing and life sciences. In this unique laboratory in space, crew members worked around-the-clock in two shifts. Experiments investigated the microgravity effects on the growth of protein and semiconductor crystals. Biological experiments on the effects of zero gravity on plants, tissues, bacteria, insects and human vestibular response were also conducted. This eight-day mission culminated in a landing at Edwards Air Force Base, California, on January 30, 1992.
Most recently, Dr. Thagard was the cosmonaut/researcher for the Russian Mir 18 mission. Twenty eight experiments were conducted in the course of the 115 day flight. Liftoff was from the BaikonurCosmodrome in Kazakstan on March 14, 1995. The mission culminated in a landing at the Kennedy Space Center in the Space Shuttle Atlantis on July 7, 1995.
With the completion of his fifth mission, Dr. Thagard has logged over 140 days in space.
Dr. Thagard retired from NASA in December 1995 and returned to his alma mater, Florida State University to take the position of Visiting Professor and Director of External Relations for the Florida A&M University – Florida State University College of Engineering, Tallahassee.
Dr. Mohler was the founding Director of the Aerospace Medicine Residency Program at Wright State University School of Medicine in 1978. Graduates of the program include over 100 civilian and military physicians. These can be found working within NASA, the FAA, the airlines, branches of the uniformed services, medical school faculties, and in the private practice of aerospace medicine.
He served as the President of the Aerospace Medical Association in 1983. His research has focused on pilot aging, performance and health aspects, fatigue, pilot medical certification aspects, medication and alcohol effects on pilot performance, airplane passenger health, and aviation accident causes. He also published on key historical topics in aviation and space that have human factors and aeromedical underpinnings.
Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences – RAS (1997) and Russian Academy of Medical Sciences (1993), a member of the Presidium of RAS (2001 –present), Academician-Secretary (2002), Acting Academician-Secretary (until May 2009.) of the RAS Department of Biological Sciences, Vice-President of RAS (2008), Honored Scientist of Russia (1996), doctor of medical sciences, professor.
A. Grigoriev was born March 23, 1943 in Zhitomir region, Ukraine. In 1966 he graduated from the 2nd Moscow Medical Institute named after Pirogov, specialty – physician in medical practice. In the same year he entered the PhD program of the Institute of Biomedical Problems. Successfully completing his graduate program under the mentorship of Academician V.V. Parin, A. Grigoriev in 1970 defended his Ph.D., in 1980 – his doctoral thesis. Anatoly consistently rose from research assistant to the head of the Laboratory (since 1978), head of the department (since 1980) Deputy Director (since 1983) to the Director of the Institute (since 1988), Scientific Director of the Institute (since October 2008.)
- Grigoriev is one of the founders of gravitational physiology. His main research interests are focused on studying the patterns of change and adaptation mechanisms of the various functional systems of humans and animals when exposed to extreme environmental factors, including the factors of space flight. A. Grigoriev made a major contribution to fundamental and applied problems of space biology and medicine that led to the possibility of the longest in the world of space manned missions to the orbiting space stations.A.I. Grigoriev’s major scientific achievements of general theoretical significance include characterization of changes in sensitivity of organs and systems to the biologically active substances in microgravity, the definition of the role of changes in water-salt metabolism in the development of vestibular disorders, postural instability and reduced tolerance of acceleration, the elucidation of mechanisms of restructuring of systems of transport of water and ions in the kidney, the establishment of the features of calcium-phosphorus metabolism and bone status during weightlessness, physiological mechanisms of the humoral regulation of metabolism in microgravity.Conducting research with the astronauts, he began to apply the load test, and then – more complex, radionuclide methods for studying metabolism. One of the first in our country, he began using water and “dry” immersion to simulate the effects of weightlessness. Study of mechanisms of adjustment kidney function, fluid and electrolyte metabolism and its hormonal regulation in model experiments in weightlessness allowed AI Grigoriev and staff, using the methods of pharmacological and metabolic correction, to develop an effective system to prevent adverse changes in the body in microgravity.In numerous studies on hypokinesia conducted under the direction of AI Grigoriev, new data were obtained on the effect of hypokinesia on the human body that led to development of promising approaches to the treatment of metabolic disorders, osteoporosis, correction of motor and cardiovascular disorders, and to prophylactic measures against the adverse impact of reduced physical activity of the human organism. From 1988 to 2008 A. Grigoriev supervised medical support of space flight aboard the Russia “Mir” orbital station and the International Space Station. Since 1991 he was the Chairman of the Chief Medical Commission, and since 2000 he served as the Chief Medical Officer of the Russian Space Agency.A. Grigoriev – Vice-Chairman of the Coordinating Council of Science and Technology of the Russian Aviation and Space Agency and the Academy of Sciences, chairman of the section “Space Biology and Physiology” of the Space Council of Sciences and chairman of the Space Medicine section of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences.
Under the leadership of AI Grigoriev, unique terrestrial simulation experiments were conducted that validated and put into practice methods of space flight medical monitoring, prediction and control of all human activities, to create a set of tools and methods for prevention of adverse effects of microgravity, which contributed to the implementation of long-term (up to a year) orbital flights. For these studies, AI Grigoriev was awarded the 1989 USSR State Prize.
Under the direction of AI Grigoriev, a program was implemented to study the cardiovascular system and metabolism during long-duration space flight, to characterize previously unknown mechanisms of endocrine regulation of metabolism in microgravity. For a series of studies on the physiology of the cardiovascular system in space flight and hypokinesia AI Grigoriev was twice awarded the Academician VV Parin Prize (1996, 2003).
In 1996, AI Grigor’ev with co-authors was awarded the Prize of the Russian Government for participation in animal studies in flying unmanned “BION” (1973 – 1993) biosatellites and their use in theory and practice of space medicine. In these studies, the process of adaptation of living systems of different evolutionary levels (from insects to primates) to the influence of gravity was thoroughly studied to validate the absence of fundamental biological limitations on the consistent increase in the duration of manned space missions. This work led to development of the strategy for human exploration of outer space, and laid the foundation for the formation of new scientific discipline – Gravitational Physiology.
In 2002, A. Grigoriev, together with a team of scientists has been awarded the State Prize of Russia for a comprehensive scientific work, “Motion Control in Sensory Disorders in microgravity and Information Support of Visual Stabilization of Space Objects.” The work shed light on the basic mechanisms of adaptation of complex disorders of inter-sensory interactions during space flight and space flight simulations, and identified ways of their correction and the method of visual quality control in space flight.
Under the guidance of AI Grigoriev, the unique experience accumulated by the Institute of Biomedical Problems (IBMP) during space exploration allowed to develop a number of important areas not directly associated with space flight. This applies in particular to research into extreme and Hyperbaric Medicine. For the development and introduction of means and methods of life support and human safety in isolated ecosystems with modified atmospheres and study the physiological effect of inert gases, AI Grigoriev together with a team of employees in 2003 was awarded the Prize of the Russian Government.
AI Grigoriev’s work was crucial to the establishment of domestic telemedicine systems. With his participation, networks for telemedicine infrastructure were tested for medical support of space flight and then implemented in the health care systems of the country. Dr. Grigoriev was also involved in the development of the telemedicine system for the International Space Station.
AI Grigoriev’s works address many theoretical issues of medicine, in particular the problems of medical standards and latent disease. Investigation of this complex problem was based on the extensive experience of IBMP in evaluations of healthy people, including candidates for cosmonauts, astronauts, aquanauts, rescue workers, pilots, athletes, and test subjects.
A. Grigoriev pays great attention to the introduction of space medicine expertise in public health practice, including rehabilitation. In the group of authors, he has developed and implemented a method of dynamic proprioceptive correction in the rehabilitation of neurological patients. The method is protected by patents and is widely used in dozens of national medical centers, particularly in the treatment of cerebral palsy and other neurological diseases. This method is implemented to create therapeutic loading costumes, “Adele” and “Regent”, multi-frequency muscle stimulator “Miostim” and the mechanical stimulus receptors of the foot “Peony.”
Results of integrated studies of the state of bone in space flight crewmembers, test subjects and patients with osteoporosis, conducted under the direction of AI Grigoriev, included assessment of metabolism and architecture of bone tissue and led to new approaches to the early diagnosis of osteoporosis.
In 1996 A. I. Grigoriev established the Department of Environmental and Extreme Medicine of the Faculty of Basic Medicine, Moscow State University, and continues to teach there. His lectures include “Space Biology and Medicine”, “Ecological physiology and medicine” and “Telemedicine.” As the head of a leading scientific school of space biology and medicine, he has mentored over 30 successful Ph.D. and D.Sc. degree candidates in the field of space physiology and extreme medicine.
From 2003 to present AI Grigoriev is the coordinator of the RAS “Fundamental sciences – medicine” program. Since 2004 he is a member of the Presidential Council for Science, Technology and Education.
A. Grigoriev is the chairman of the Council of Scientific Publishing at the Academy of Sciences (since 2007). He is the Editor-in- Chief of “Human Physiology”, “Technologies of living systems”, “Aerospace and Environmental Medicine” (1989 – 2009.), and a member of editorial boards of several national and international journals.
AI Grigoriev actively participates in international cooperation in the field of space medicine and biology. He plays major roles in the cooperation of Russian scientists with colleagues in the United States, France and other countries of the European Space Agency. A. Grigoriev co-Chairs the international Lspace Station Multilateral Medical Policy Board since 2000. AI Grigor’ev’s scientific and organizational activities have earned appreciation of the international scientific community, as evidenced by his service as vice-president of the International Academy of Astronautics (1993-2003) and Vice-President of the International Astronautical Federation (2004-2008); he hold the degree of Doctor Honoris causa of the University of Lyon (France).
A. Grigoriev was awarded many orders and medals of Russia and foreign countries. In recent years, he was awarded the Order of Merit for the Fatherland IV and III degree (2003, 2008), the title of an officer of the Order of the Legion of Honour of France (2004), “The Big Badge of Merit of the Federal Republic of Austria, the Order of Dostyk (Friendship), Kazakhstan, the Lomonosov Order, the “Triumph” prize for his achievements in the field of medicine (2006), the Demidov Prize for Achievement in the Life Sciences (2008), Ukhtomsky Prize (2009), the Medal of N. V.Timofeev-Ressovsky, Academician VF Utkin Gold Medal. Academician Vavilov (2008) and Pirogov (2008) medals, and others. He has authored or coauthored more than 300 scientific publications, including 12 monographs and 16 book chapters; he is the author of more than 20 patents.
His major activities during this career were conceptualizing, establishing, and chairing the Space Medicine Advisory Group (SPAMAG) charged with defining the earth-based and space-based research and life-support requirements for a manned orbiting research laboratory. This Group designed a carefully planned study utilizing highly qualified, specialized members of the scientific community. They postulated a non-existent orbiting laboratory to be designed according to the needs of future human flight crews and requirements for human spaceflight information. This would result in the creation of Skylab.
He was also responsible for establishing the In-flight Medical Experiments Program in preparation for the Apollo series of manned space flights. This program was a series of carefully designed flight crew studies derived from proposals by qualified scientists both from within and outside NASA to evaluate human responses to spaceflight.
In addition, Dr. Vinograd developed a supportive Research and Development Program necessary to provide pertinent ground-based data and to advance state-of-the-art medical measurement technology, a major development of which was the Integrated Medical and Behavioral Laboratory measurement System (IMBLMS). This consisted of medical experiments and accompanying equipment necessary to perform them that was used from the Gemini through the Skylab manned space flight programs. Carried aboard virtually any post-Apollo space vehicle by virtue of its rack and module design, these designs were used well into the future. He also fostered the continuing ground-based medical research program sponsored and/or conducted by NASA.
PERSONAL DATA: Born February 19, 1932, in Oak Park, Illinois.
Married to the former Shirley Ann Good of Danville, Pennsylvania. They
have three daughters, and three grandchildren. His hobbies are reading
and classical music.
EDUCATION: Graduated from Fenwick High School, Oak Park,
Illinois, in 1949; received a bachelor of arts degree in Philosophy from
College of the Holy Cross, Worcester, Massachusetts, in 1953; a doctor
of Medicine degree from Northwestern University Medical School,
Chicago, Illinois, in 1957; completed internship at the District of
Columbia General Hospital in Washington, D.C.; and attended the U.S.
Navy School of Aviation Medicine at Pensacola, Florida, being
designated a naval flight surgeon in December 1958.
ORGANIZATIONS: Fellow of the Aerospace Medical Association; member of the Aircraft Owners and
EXPERIENCE: Kerwin, a Captain, has been in the Navy Medical Corps since July 1958. He earned his
wings at Beeville, Texas, in 1962. He has logged 4,500 hours flying time.
NASA EXPERIENCE: Captain Kerwin was selected as a scientist-astronaut by NASA in June 1965.
Kerwin served as science-pilot for the Skylab 2 (SL-2) mission which launched on May 25 and terminated onJune 22, 1973. With him for the initial activation and 28-day flight qualification operations of the Skylab
orbital workshop were Charles Conrad, Jr., (spacecraft commander) and Paul J. Weitz (pilot).
Kerwin was subsequently in charge of the on-orbit branch of the Astronaut Office, where he coordinated
astronaut activity involving rendezvous, satellite deployment and retrieval, and other Shuttle payload
operations. From 1982-1983, Kerwin served as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s senior science representative in Australia. In this capacity, he served as liaison between NASA’s Office of Space Tracking and Data Systems and Australia’s Department of Science and Technology. From 1984-1987, he served as Director, Space and Life Sciences, Johnson Space Center. Kerwin was responsible for direction and coordination of medical support to operational manned spacecraft programs, including health care and maintenance of the astronauts and their families; for direction of life services, supporting research and light experiment project; and for managing JSC earth sciences and scientific efforts in lunar and planetary research. He retired from the Navy, left NASA and joined Lockheed in 1987. At Lockheed he managed the Extravehicular Systems Project, providing hardware for Space Station Freedom, from 1988 to 1990; with two other Lockheed employees he invented the Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER), recently tested for use by space walking astronauts on the International Space Station (ISS). He then served on the Assured Crew Return Vehicle team, and served as Study Manager on the Human Transportation Study, a NASA review of future space transportation architectures. In 1994-95 he led the Houston liaison group for Lockheed Martin’s FGB contract, the procurement of the Russian “space tug” which has become the first element of the ISS. He served on the NASA Advisory Council from 1990 to 1993.
He joined Systems Research Laboratories (SRL) in June, 1996, to serve as Program Manager of the SRL
team which bid to win the Medical Support and Integration Contract at the Johnson Space Center. The
incumbent, KRUG Life Sciences, was selected. Then, to his surprise, KRUG recruited him to replace its
retiring President, T. Wayne Holt. He joined KRUG on April 1, 1997. On March 16, 1998, KRUG Life Sciences became the Life Sciences Special Business Unit of Wyle Laboratories of El Segundo, California.
In addition to his duties at Wyle, he serves on the Board of Directors of the National Space Biomedical
Research Institute (NSBRI) as an Industry representative.
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